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Conventional and Emerging Markers in Stem Cell Isolation and Characterization

  • Chavali Kavyasudha
  • Joel P. Joseph
  • Rama Jayaraj
  • Aruthra Arumugam Pillai
  • Arikketh DeviEmail author
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series


Stem cells have emerged as a promising source of cell-based therapy in regenerative medicine with several stem cell-based products currently in clinical trials. Despite the immense therapeutic potential, their isolation from some of the emerging sources and their characterization has been naïve owing to the lack of standard markers for the same. Some biomarkers have now been well established for the isolation and characterization of stem cells. However, there are emerging markers that can be used in addition to these conventional markers or independent of them to establish the identity of the stem cells. In this review, an attempt has been made to describe a few conventionally used markers and emerging markers for the identification, isolation and characterization of stem cells from various niches across the three germ layer origins.


Conventional markers Emerging markers Epidermal SCs markers MSC markers NSC markers Stem cell markers 



Activated Leucocyte-Cell Adhesion Molecule


Alkaline Phosphatase


Alkaline Phosphatase Protein


Adenosine MonoPhosphate


basic Fibroblast Growth Factor


B-cell specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1


Bone Morphogenic Protein


Calcium/Calmodulin dependant protein Kinase II Inhibitor 1


Cycling Crypt Base Columnar


Colony Forming Unit – Granulocytes, Erythrocytes, Macrophages, Megakaryocytes


Spleen Colony Forming Unit

CFU assay

Colony Forming Unit assay


Creatine Kinase B Type


Central Nervous System


Collagen Type 1 alpha 1


Collagen Type VIII Alpha 1


Cardiac progenitor cells


Crystalline – aB


Crystalline alpha B


Cardiac Stem cells


Dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor 1


Erb-B2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase 2


Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor – 4


Fetal Liver Kinase 1


GATA binding protein 5


Glycosyl – phosphatidylinositol


Human Bone Marrow Stem Cells


Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2


High Mobility Group


Homeodomain only protein Homo Sapiens


High Proliferative Potential Colony Forming Cell


International Society for Cellular Therapy


Islet 1


Kinase Insert Domain Receptor


Leucine Rich Repeat containing G Protein-Coupled Receptor 5


Leucine Rich Repeats and Immunoglobulin-Like Domains Protein 1


Microtubule associated protein 2


Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase pathway


Melanoma Cell Adhesion Molecule


Multi Drug Resistant gene 1


Mesenchymal Stem Cells




Neuronal Nuclei

NK cells

Natural Killer cells


Neural Stem Cells


Osteo Calcin


Peripheral Nervous System

POU family

Pit-Oct-Unc family


Poly-sialylated Neuronal Cell Adhesion Molecule


Runt-related Transcription Factor 2


Sleeping Beauty Transposon system 10


Src – homology 3


Stage Specific Embryonic Antigens – 1

STRO – 1

Stromal Cell Surface marker


Transiently Amplifying


Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase

TGF – β R complex

Transforming Growth Factor Beta Receptor Complex


Thyroid Peroxidase


Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chavali Kavyasudha
    • 1
  • Joel P. Joseph
    • 1
  • Rama Jayaraj
    • 2
  • Aruthra Arumugam Pillai
    • 1
  • Arikketh Devi
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Genetic EngineeringSRM Institute of Science and TechnologyKattankulathur, ChennaiIndia
  2. 2.College of Health and Human SciencesCharles Darwin UniversityDarwinAustralia

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