Developments in Artificial Platelet and Erythroid Transfusion Products

Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1247)


Platelet and blood transfusions have vital importance to the lives of many patients. Platelet transfusions are a life-saving intervention by reducing risk of bleeding in thrombocytopenic patients. Due to the short shelf life of platelets and their limited availability, researchers have developed various platelet transfusion production technologies. Understanding the cellular and biophysical mechanisms of platelet release is particularly important for development of platelet transfusion products (PTPs) and to translate them to clinical applications in patients requiring platelet infusion. Similarly, due to donor dependence and increased clinical need of blood transfusions, studies on the erythroid transfusion products (ETPs) have recently gained momentum. This led to development of ETP technologies involving differentiation of stem cells to fully functional erythrocytes in vitro. During megakaryopoiesis or erythropoiesis, various stimulatory factors, growth factors, transcription factors, and biophysical conditions have been shown to play a crucial role in the formation final blood products. Thus, understanding of the in vivo mechanisms of platelet release and erythrocyte maturation is particularly important for mimicking these conditions in vitro. This review focuses on latest and up-to-date information about the innovations in PTP and ETP technologies. We also discuss some of the recent fundamental findings that have changed our understanding of in vivo platelet release and blood formation.

Graphical Abstract

Human bone marrow acts as a source of cells required for erythropoiesis and megakaryopoeiesis. Understanding of molecular mechanism and physiology of these vital and curitial events allowed us to mimic these conditions ex vivo and to develop artificial platelet and erythroid transfusion production technologies.


Erythroid transfusion products Erythropoiesis ETPs Hematopoietic stem cells Megakaryocytopoiesis Megakaryopoeiesis Platelet transfusion products 



Aurora B Inhibitor


Adipose Derived Stem Cells


Burst Forming Unit Megakaryocyte


Bone Marrow


Colony Forming Unit – granulocyte, erythrocyte, monocyte, megakaryocyte


Colony Forming Unit Megakaryocyte


Common Myeloid Progenitor


Common Myeloid Progenitors


Demarcation Membrane System


Extracellular Matrix


Embryonic Stem Cell


Embryonic Stem Cell–Derived Sacs


Erythroid Transfusion Products


Friend Leukemia Integration 1


GATA binding protein 1


Glycoprotein V


Human Dermal Fibroblasts


Human Embryonic Stem Cells


Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells


Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells


Hematopoietic Stem Cell


Human telomerase reverse transcriptase


Interleukin 1 alpha


Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase


Myeloid ectopic viral integration site 1


Megakaryocyte Erythroid Progenitor




Megakaryocyte Progenitor




Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2


Peripheral Blood


Platelet Derived Growth Factor




Platelet Transfusion Products


Red Blood Cells


Rho Rock inhibitor


Runt related transcription factor 1


Stem Cell Factor


Stromal-Derived Factor-1


Src Inhibitor


Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 1


T-cell Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Protein 1


Transforming Growth Factor-Beta




Umbilical Cord Blood


Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor


von Willebrand Factor



FK has been supported by funds provided by the European Commission Co-Funded Brain Circulation Scheme by The Marie Curie Action COFUND of the 7th. Framework Programme (FP7) (115C039), The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) [grant numbers 115S185, 215Z069, 215Z071,and 216S317], The Science Academy Young Scientist Award Program (BAGEP-2015, Turkey), The International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology – ICGEB 2015 Early Career Return Grant [grant number CRP/TUR15-02_EC], Medicine for Malaria Venture MMV Pathogenbox Award (Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation), Gilead Sciences International Hematology & Oncology program, Gilead ile Hayat Bulan Fikirler, and ERA-Net CVD program (118S929). We apologize whose work could not be discussed in this review due to size limitations. All authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest concerning this work.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Regenerative Biology Research Laboratory, Department of Genetics and Bioengineering, Faculty of EngineeringYeditepe UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Graduate School of Natural and Applied SciencesYeditepe UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  3. 3.Bone Marrow Transplantation CenterAnadolu Medical CenterKocaeliTurkey

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