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Transamniotic Stem Cell Therapy

  • Stefanie P. Lazow
  • Dario O. FauzaEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series

Abstract

Transamniotic stem cell therapy (TRASCET) is a novel prenatal therapeutic alternative for the treatment of congenital anomalies. It is based upon the principle of augmenting the pre-existing biological role of select populations of fetal stem cells for targeted therapeutic benefit. For example, amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (afMSCs) play an integral role in fetal tissue repair, validating the use of afMSCs in regenerative strategies. The simple intra-amniotic delivery of these cells in expanded numbers via TRASCET has been shown to promote the repair of and/or significantly ameliorate the effects associated with major congenital anomalies such as neural tube and abdominal wall defects. For example, TRASCET can induce partial or complete coverage of experimental spina bifida through the formation of a host-derived rudimentary neoskin, thus protecting the spinal cord from further damage secondary to amniotic fluid exposure. Furthermore, TRASCET can significantly reduce the bowel inflammation associated with gastroschisis, a common major abdominal wall defect. After intra-amniotic injection, donor stem cells home to the placenta and the fetal bone marrow in the spina bifida model, suggesting a role for hematogenous cell routing rather than direct defect seeding. Therefore, the expansion of TRASCET to congenital diseases without amniotic fluid exposure, such as congenital diaphragmatic hernia, as well as to maternal diseases, is currently under investigation in this emerging and evolving field of fetal stem cell therapy.

Keywords

Transamniotic stem cell therapy TRASCET Amniotic mesenchymal stem cell Amniotic stem cell Amniotic neural stem cell Fetal stem cell Fetal cell therapy  

Abbreviations

afMSC

amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cell

afNSC

amniotic fluid-derived neural stem cell

CD45

cluster of differentiation 45

CDH

congenital diaphragmatic hernia

CVS

chorionic villus sampling

Ece

endothelin converting enzyme

ECMO

extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

Egf

epidermal growth factor

Enos

endothelial nitric oxide synthase

Er-a

endothelin receptor-a

Er-b

endothelin receptor-b

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

Fgf-2

fibroblast growth factor-2

Fgf-10

fibroblast growth factor-10

H&E

hematoxin and eosin

HSC

hematopoietic stem cell

MOMS

management of myelomeningocele study

MRI

magnetic resonance imaging

MSC

mesenchymal stem cell

NSC

neural stem cell

NTD

Neural tube defect

PCR

polymerase chain reaction

pMSC

placental-derived mesenchymal stem cell

pPet-1

pre-Proendothelin-1

qRT-PCR

quantitative real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction

SPC

surfactant protein-C

Tgfb-1

transforming growth factor-b-1

TRASCET

transamniotic stem cell therapy

Vegf-a

vascular endothelial growth factor-a

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SurgeryBoston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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