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Novel Therapies for Biofilm-Based Candida spp. Infections

  • Lucia Černáková
  • Catilin Light
  • Bahare Salehi
  • Cristian Rogel-Castillo
  • Montserrat Victoriano
  • Miquel Martorell
  • Javad Sharifi-Rad
  • Natália MartinsEmail author
  • Célia F. RodriguesEmail author
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series


The presence of fungal infections continue to grow worldwide, mostly in immunosuppressed patients, and in individuals with continued antimicrobial treatments. Candida spp. are the most common yeasts involved in these disorders, being associated with a high rate of antifungal resistance and an increased ability to form biofilms, which make the treatment of these infections difficult. This review aims to present and discuss the main biofilm-related infections cause by several Candida spp. and novel therapies that are currently available in the clinical, scientific and academic environment. New drugs with promising antifungal activity, natural approaches (e.g. probiotics, essential oils, plant extracts, honey) and a final consideration on alternative methodologies, such as photodynamic therapy are presented and discussed.


Biofilms Candida spp. Drugs Essential oil Honey Infection Photodynamic therapy Plant extract Prebiotic Probiotic Resistance 



Célia F. Rodrigues would like to thank for the UID/EQU/00511/2019 Project—Laboratory of Process Engineering, Environment, Biotechnology and Energy—LEPABE financed by national funds through FCT/MCTES (PIDDAC). N.M. would like to thank the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT–Portugal) for the Strategic project ref. UID/BIM/04293/2013 and “NORTE2020 – Programa Operacional Regional do Norte” (NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000012). This work was also supported by CONICYT PIA/APOYO CCTE AFB170007.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lucia Černáková
    • 1
  • Catilin Light
    • 2
  • Bahare Salehi
    • 3
  • Cristian Rogel-Castillo
    • 4
  • Montserrat Victoriano
    • 5
  • Miquel Martorell
    • 4
  • Javad Sharifi-Rad
    • 6
  • Natália Martins
    • 7
    • 8
    Email author
  • Célia F. Rodrigues
    • 9
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology and Virology, Faculty of Natural SciencesComenius University in BratislavaBratislavaSlovakia
  2. 2.Department of Biological Sciences, Binghamton Biofilm Research Center, Freshman Research Immersion ProgramBinghamton UniversityBinghamtonUSA
  3. 3.Student Research Committee, School of MedicineBam University of Medical SciencesBamIran
  4. 4.Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of PharmacyUniversity of ConcepcionConcepcionChile
  5. 5.Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of PharmacyUniversity of ConcepcionConcepcionChile
  6. 6.Zabol Medicinal Plants Research CenterZabol University of Medical SciencesZabolIran
  7. 7.Faculty of MedicineUniversity of PortoPortoPortugal
  8. 8.Institute for Research and Innovation in Health (i3S)University of PortoPortoPortugal
  9. 9.LEPABE – Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of PortoPortoPortugal

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