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Systemic Sclerosis and Serum Content of Transforming Growth Factor

  • Dominik MajewskiEmail author
  • Katarzyna A. Majewska
  • Barbara Kuznar-Kaminska
  • Marta Runowska
  • Tomasz Piorunek
  • Halina Batura-Gabryel
  • Mariusz Puszczewicz
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series


Systemic sclerosis is a connective tissue disease characterized by tissue fibrosis leading to interstitial lung disease. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) has been of interest as a potential diagnostic marker and also as a drug target in systemic sclerosis. The aim of this study was to assess the serum content of TGF-β1 in patients with systemic sclerosis and to assess its potential role in tissue fibrosis. The study included 30 patients, 5 men and 25 women, of the mean age of 46.9 ± 12.8 years, diagnosed with systemic sclerosis. The control group consisted of 19 women of the mean age of 28.4 ± 7.8 years, diagnosed with primary Raynaud’s disease. TGF-β1 serum levels were measured, chest imaging examinations were performed, and fibrotic tissue changes were assessed using the modified Rodnan Skin Score. We found that the mean serum TGF-β1 content in patients with systemic sclerosis was 598.7 ± 242.6 pg/mL, whereas it was 568.4 ± 322.2 pg/mL in the control group (p = 0.378). We also failed to substantiate any significant relationship between TGF-β1 serum levels and the severity of pulmonary and skin fibrosis in systemic sclerosis. In conclusion, systemic sclerosis does not seem a disease that would be accompanied by a specific enhancement of serum TGF-β1. Thus, this cytokine is rather unlikely to play an essential role in the development and course of the disease, nor can it be considered diagnostic or prognostic marker.


Connective tissue disease Cytokines Fibroblasts Pulmonary hypertension Rheumatology Scleroderma 


Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest in relation to this article.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This study was approved by the Bioethics Committee of the Karol Marcinkowski University of Medical Sciences in Poznań, Poland.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dominik Majewski
    • 1
    Email author
  • Katarzyna A. Majewska
    • 2
  • Barbara Kuznar-Kaminska
    • 3
  • Marta Runowska
    • 1
  • Tomasz Piorunek
    • 3
  • Halina Batura-Gabryel
    • 3
  • Mariusz Puszczewicz
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Rheumatology and Internal DiseasesPoznan University of Medical SciencesPoznanPoland
  2. 2.Department of Clinical Auxology and Pediatric NursingPoznan University of Medical SciencesPoznanPoland
  3. 3.Department of Pulmonology, Allergology and Respiratory OncologyPoznan University of Medical SciencesPoznanPoland

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