pp 1-9 | Cite as

Protein-Bound Solute Clearance During Hemodialysis

  • Małgorzata Gomółka
  • Longin NiemczykEmail author
  • Katarzyna Szamotulska
  • Aleksandra Wyczałkowska-Tomasik
  • Aleksandra Rymarz
  • Jerzy Smoszna
  • Mariusz Jasik
  • Leszek Pączek
  • Stanisław Niemczyk
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series


Indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresol sulfate (p-CS) are protein-bound solutes that accumulate in the blood serum in chronic kidney disease and have a detrimental effect on the kidney and other organs’ function. This study seeks to define the effectiveness of IS and p-CS clearance after single dialysis sessions and after 8-week-long cycles of hemodialysis using the following different dialysis modalities in succession: low-flux hemodialysis (lfHD), high-flux hemodialysis (hfHD), and post-dilution hemodiafiltration (HDF). We also investigated to what extent IS and p-CS serum content would associate with some other biochemical indices in patients with chronic kidney diseases. The study included 21 uremic patients. We found that a single session of each modality effectively decreased the content of both IS and p-CS, with the predominance of p-CS decrease. There were no appreciable differences depending on the modality of hemodialysis chosen. However, the leaching effect tended to wear off with the weeks’ long dialysis cycles. We further found that a greater inflammation-prone level of hsCRP evoked by dialysis led to a greater removal of solutes, and thus their decrease in the serum, during a single dialysis session. Reversely, a greater protein level might result in a greater solute binding and a decrease in removal. We conclude that there are no major differences in the serum clearance of IS and p-CS depending on the dialysis modality. These protein-bound toxins are significantly cleared from the serum already during the first dialysis session, but their level tends to revert during weeks’ long dialysis sessions.


Blood toxin clearance Cresol sulfate Hemodiafiltration Hemodialysis Indoxyl sulfate Protein-bound solutes 



Funded by grant no. 257 from the Military Institute of Medicine in Warsaw, Poland.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest in relations to this article.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The project was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Military Institute of Medicine in Warsaw, Poland.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Małgorzata Gomółka
    • 1
  • Longin Niemczyk
    • 2
    Email author
  • Katarzyna Szamotulska
    • 3
  • Aleksandra Wyczałkowska-Tomasik
    • 4
  • Aleksandra Rymarz
    • 1
  • Jerzy Smoszna
    • 1
  • Mariusz Jasik
    • 5
  • Leszek Pączek
    • 4
  • Stanisław Niemczyk
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Internal Medicine, Nephrology and DialysisMilitary Institute of MedicineWarsawPoland
  2. 2.Department of Nephrology, Dialysis and Internal MedicineWarsaw Medical UniversityWarsawPoland
  3. 3.Department of Epidemiology and BiostatisticsInstitute of Mother and Child in WarsawWarsawPoland
  4. 4.Department of Immunology, Transplantology and Internal MedicineWarsaw Medical UniversityWarsawPoland
  5. 5.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyWarsaw Medical UniversityWarsawPoland

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