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pp 1-20 | Cite as

Cellular Complexity at the Interface: Challenges in Enthesis Tissue Engineering

  • Isabel Calejo
  • Raquel Costa-Almeida
  • Manuela E. GomesEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series

Abstract

The complex heterogeneous cellular environment found in tendon-to-bone interface makes this structure a challenge for interface tissue engineering. Orthopedic surgeons still face some problems associated with the formation of fibrotic tissue or re-tear occurring after surgical re-attachment of tendons to the bony insertion or the application of grafts. Unfortunately, an understanding of the cellular component of enthesis lags far behind of other well-known musculoskeletal interfaces, which blocks the development of new treatment options for the healing and regeneration of this multifaceted junction. In this chapter, the main characteristics of tendon and bone cell populations are introduced, followed by a brief description of the interfacial cellular niche, highlighting molecular mechanisms governing tendon-to-bone attachment and mineralization. Finally, we describe and critically assess some challenges faced concerning the use of cell-based strategies in tendon-to-bone healing and regeneration.

Keywords

Biomarkers Bone Cell Biology Cell-based therapies Enthesis healing/repair Regeneration Tendon 

Abbreviations

3D

Three-dimensional

ACL

Anterior cruciate ligament

ALP

Alkaline phosphatase

ASCs

Adipose-derived stem cells

Bmp/BMP

Bone morphogenetic protein

Bmpr1a

Bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1a

BMU

Basic multicellular unit

BSP

Bone sialoprotein

ECM

Extracellular matrix

GDF

Growth and differentiation factors

Hh

Hedgehog

IBSP

Integrin binding sialoprotein

Ihh

Indian hedgehog

MMP

Matrix metallopeptidase

MSCs

Mesenchymal stem cells

OCN

Osteocalcin

PTHrp

Parathyroid hormone-related protein

RUNX2

Runt-related transcription factor 2

Scx/SCX

Scleraxis

Smo

Smoothened

Sox9

Sex-determining region Y-box 9

TCs

Tenocytes

TDSCs

Tendon-derived stem cells

TgfbrII

Transforming growth factor beta receptor II

TGFß

Transforming growth factor beta

TSPCs

Tendon stem/progenitor cells

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Isabel Calejo
    • 1
    • 2
  • Raquel Costa-Almeida
    • 1
    • 2
  • Manuela E. Gomes
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.3B’s Research Group, I3Bs – Research Institute on Biomaterials, Biodegradables and BiomimeticsUniversity of Minho, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative MedicineGuimarãesPortugal
  2. 2.ICVS/3B’s – PT Government Associate LaboratoryBraga/GuimarãesPortugal
  3. 3.The Discoveries Centre for Regenerative and Precision MedicineHeadquarters at University of MinhoGuimarãesPortugal

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