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Tissue Engineered Skin Substitutes

  • Parisa Goodarzi
  • Khadijeh Falahzadeh
  • Mehran Nematizadeh
  • Parham Farazandeh
  • Moloud Payab
  • Bagher Larijani
  • Akram Tayanloo Beik
  • Babak Arjmand
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1107)

Abstract

The fundamental skin role is to supply a supportive barrier to protect body against harmful agents and injuries. Three layers of skin including epidermis, dermis and hypodermis form a sophisticated tissue composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) mainly made of collagens and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) as a scaffold, different cell types such as keratinocytes, fibroblasts and functional cells embedded in the ECM. When the skin is injured, depends on its severity, the majority of mentioned components are recruited to wound regeneration. Additionally, different growth factors like fibroblast growth factor (FGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are needed to orchestrated wound healing process. In case of large surface area wounds, natural wound repair seems inefficient. Inspired by nature, scientists in tissue engineering field attempt to engineered constructs mimicking natural healing process to promote skin restoration in untreatable injuries. There are three main types of commercially available engineered skin substitutes including epidermal, dermal, and dermoepidermal. Each of them could be composed of scaffold, desired cell types or growth factors. These substitutes could have autologous, allogeneic, or xenogeneic origin. Moreover, they may be cellular or acellular. They are used to accelerate wound healing and recover normal skin functions with pain relief. Although there are a wide variety of commercially available skin substitutes, almost none of them considered as an ideal equivalents required for proper wound healing.

Keywords

Skin substitute Tissue engineering Wound healing 

Abbreviations

3D

3 Dimensional

LOEX

Laboratoire d'Or- ganogenese Experimentale

AATB

American Association of Tissue Banks

MHC

Major histocompatibility complex

AMSCs

Adipose-derived MSCs

MSCs

Mesenchymal stem cells

BMSCs

Bone marrow-derived MSCs

NK

Natural killer

CEA

Cultured epithelial autograft

PCL

Poly-ε-caprolactone

CSS

Cultured skin substitutes

PDGF

Platelet-derived growth factor

CTGF

Connective tissue growth factor

PDLA

Poly-D-lactic acid

EB

Epidermolysis bullosa

PDLLA

Poly-DL-lactic acid

ECM

Extracellular matrix

PEG

Polyethylene glycol

EGF

Epidermal growth factor

PGA

Polyglycolic acid

ESCs

Embryonic stem cells

PHB

Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate

FDA

US Food and Drug Administration

PLA

Polylactic acid

FGF

Fibroblast growth factor

PLCL

Poly L-lactide-co- ε –caprolactone

FGF-1

Fibroblast growth factor-1

PLGA

Polylactic-co-glycolic acid

FGF-2

Fibroblast growth factor-2

PLLA

Poly-L-lactic acid

FTSG

Full-thickness skin grafting

POE

Polyhydroxyortho esters

GAG

Glycosaminoglycan

PU

Polyurethane

HA

Hyaluronic acid

PVA

Poly vinyl alcohol

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus

SAPs

Self-assembling peptides

IL-1

Interleukin-1

TBSA

Total body surface area

IL-6

Interleukin-6

STSG

Split-thickness skin grafting

IL-8

Interleukin-8

TGFα

Transforming growth factor-α

IPSCs

Induced pluripotent stem cells

TGFβ

Transforming growth factor-β

KGF

keratinocyte growth factor

UMSCs

Umbilical cord-derived MSCs

KGF-1

keratinocyte growth factor-1

UV

Ultraviolet

LCs

Langerhans cells

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge Dr. Hossein Adibi and Dr. Mohsen Khorshidi, and Rasta Arjmand for their kind help in this project.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Parisa Goodarzi
    • 1
  • Khadijeh Falahzadeh
    • 2
  • Mehran Nematizadeh
    • 2
  • Parham Farazandeh
    • 2
  • Moloud Payab
    • 3
  • Bagher Larijani
    • 4
  • Akram Tayanloo Beik
    • 5
  • Babak Arjmand
    • 5
  1. 1.Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center, Neuroscience InstituteTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Metabolomics and Genomics Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences InstituteTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Obesity and Eating Habits Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences InstituteTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  4. 4.Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences InstituteTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  5. 5.Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences InstituteTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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