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Graphene Based Materials in Neural Tissue Regeneration

  • Tugce Aydin
  • Cansu Gurcan
  • Hadiseh Taheri
  • Açelya Yilmazer
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1107)

Abstract

Due to its extraordinary features such as large surface area, high electrical conductivity, chemical stability and mechanical properties, graphene attracts great interest in various fields of biomedical sciences including biosensors, cancer therapy, diagnosis and regenerative medicine. The use of graphene-based materials has been of great interest for the design of scaffolds that can promote neural tissue regeneration. Recent studies published over the last few years clearly show that graphene and graphene based materials promote adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of various cells including embryonic stem cells (ESC), neural stem cells (NSC), mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). Therefore graphene based materials are one of the promising nanoplatforms in regenerative medicine for neural tissue injury. With its unique topographic and chemical properties, graphene is used as a scaffold that could provide a bridge between regenerating nerves. More importantly, as a conductive substrate, graphene allows the continuation of electrical conduction between damaged nerve ends. The integration of supportive cells such as glial, neural precursor or stem cells in such a scaffold shows higher regeneration when compared to currently used neural autografts and nerve conduits. This review discusses the details of such studies involving graphene based materials with a special interest on neural stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells or pluripotent stem cells.

Keywords

Graphene oxide Mesenchymal stem cells Neural stem cells Pluripotent stem cells 

Abbreviations

2D

Two dimentional

3D

Three dimentional

1 step-G

One-step growth

2 step-G

Two-step growth

BDNF

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor

b-FGF

Basic fibroblast growth factor

CNS

Central nervous system

Cu

Copper

ECM

Extracellular matrix

EGF

Epidermal growth factor

ELF-EMF

Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields

ESCs

Embryonic stem cells

FGF-2

Fibroblast growth factor 2

G

Graphene

GO

Graphene oxide

hADMSCs

Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells

hMSCs

Human mesenchymal stem cells

hNPCs

Human neural progenitor cells

hNSCs

Human neural stem cells

IFNγ

Interferon-γ

iPSCs

Induced pluripotent stem cells

LIF

Leukemia inhibitory factor

LPS

Lipopolysaccharide

MSCs

Mesenchymal stem cells

NGLC

Nanocrystalline glass-like carbon film

NGF

Nerve growth factor

NGO

Nanosized graphene oxide

NPCs

Neural progenitor cells

NSCs

Neural stem cells

PADM

Porcine acellular dermal matrix

PCL

Polycaprolactone

PDGF

Platelet-derived growth factor

PDMS

Polydimethylsiloxane

PEDOT

Poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)

PEG

Poly (ethylene glycol)

PN

Peripheral nerve

PNI

Peripheral nerve injury

PNS

Peripheral nervous system

PU

Polyurethane

rGO

Reduced graphene oxide

SCI

Spinal cord injury

SCs

Schwann cells

SDIA

Stromal cell-derived inducing activity

siNPs

Silica nanoparticles

TBI

Traumatic brain injury

TCPS

Tissue culture polystyrene

TiO2

Titanium dioxide

Notes

Acknowledgement

AY, HT and CG acknowledge support by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey and FlagEra Graphene Project G-IMMUNOMICS (TUBITAK, grant number 315S202).

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tugce Aydin
    • 1
    • 2
  • Cansu Gurcan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hadiseh Taheri
    • 2
  • Açelya Yilmazer
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Biotechnology InstituteAnkara UniversityTandogan/AnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Engineering Faculty, Biomedical Engineering DepartmentAnkara UniversityTandogan/AnkaraTurkey
  3. 3.Stem Cell InstituteAnkara UniversityBalgat/AnkaraTurkey

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