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Embryonic Stem Cells in Development and Regenerative Medicine

  • Ayşegül DoğanEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1079)

Abstract

After progressive improvement in embryonic stem (ES) cell field, several studies have been conducted to explore the usage of ES cells in regenerative medicine. Unlimited self renewal and pluripoteny properties, combined with encouraging preclinical trials, remark that ES cell technology might be promising for clinical practice. ES cells, which can form three germ layers in vitro, are potential candidates to study development at the cellular and molecular level. Understanding the cell fate decision and differentiation processes during development might enable generating functional progenitor cells for tissue restoration. Progression in gene modifications and tissue engineering technology has facilitated the derivation of desired cells for therapy. Success in differentiation protocols and identification the regulatory pathways simplify the research for clinical applications. Although there are established protocols for cell differentiation in vitro and promising preclinical studies in vivo, many challenges need to be adressed before clinical translation. In this review, ES cells are discussed as a model of development in vitro and as a potential candidate for regenerative medicine. This review also dissusses current challenges for ES cell based therapy.

Keywords

Embryonic stem cells Development Differentiation Regenerative medicine Tissue engineering 

Abbreviations

ALS

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

ASCs

Adult Stem Cells

BDNF

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor

BMP

Bone Morphogenic Protein

EB

Embryoid Body

ECM

Extracellular Matrix

EGF

Epidermal Growth Factor

ES cells

Embryonic stem cells

FACS

Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting

FGF

Fibroblast Growth Factor

Flt3L

Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand

FoxO1

Forkhead box O1

G-CSF

Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor

GDNF

Glial-Derived Neurotrophic Factor

HSCs

Hematopoietic Stem Cells

ICM

Inner Cell Mass

IL

Interleukins

IPS

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

LIF

Leukemia Inhibitory Factor

MACS

Magnetically Activated Cell Sorting

MHC

Major Histocompatibility Complex

MS

Multiple Sclerosis

MSCs

Mesenchymal Stem Cells

NGF

Nerve Growth Factor

PODXL

Podocalyxin-like protein-1

RA

Retinoic Acid

SCF

Stem Cell Factor

SCNT

Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

SHH

Sonic Hedgehog

TSCs

Trophoblast Stem Cells

XENCs

Extraembryonic Endoderm Cells

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© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Cancer Institute, CDBL, NIHFrederickUSA

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