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Dental Stem Cells in Bone Tissue Engineering: Current Overview and Challenges

  • Pinar Ercal
  • Gorke Gurel Pekozer
  • Gamze Torun Kose
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1107)

Abstract

The treatment of bone that is impaired due to disease, trauma or tumor resection creates a challenge for both clinicians and researchers. Critical size bone defects are conventionally treated with autografts which are associated with risks such as donor site morbidity and limitations like donor shortage. Bone tissue engineering has become a promising area for the management of critical size bone defects by the employment of biocompatible materials and the discovery of novel stem cell sources. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated with ease from various dental tissues including dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from apical papilla, dental follicle stem cells, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth, periodontal ligament stem cells, gingival stem cells and tooth germ derived stem cells. Outcomes of dental MSC mediated bone tissue engineering is explored in various in vivo and in vitro preclinical studies. However, there are still obscurities regarding the mechanisms underlying in MSC mediated bone regeneration and challenges in applications of dental stem cells. In this review, we summarized dental stem cell sources and their characterizations, along with currently used biomaterials for cell delivery and future perspectives for dental MSCs in the field of bone tissue engineering. Further efforts are necessary before moving to clinical trials for future applications.

Keywords

Bone regeneration Bone tissue engineering Dental stem cells 

Abbreviations

ALP:

Alkaline phosphatase

bFGF:

Basic fibroblast growth factor

BMMSCs:

Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells

BMP:

Bone morphogenic protein

CDM:

Chemically defined media

Col I:

Collagen I

DFSCs:

Dental follicle stem cells

DPSCs:

Dental pulp stem cells

ECM:

Extracellular matrix

FBS:

Fetal bovine serum

GFP:

Green fluorescence protein

GMSCs:

Gingival mesenchymal stem cells

HA/TCP:

Hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate

HOX:

Homeobox

IGF-1:

Insulin-like growth factor 1

MSCs:

Mesenchymal stem cells

OPC:

Osteopontin

OPN:

Osteonectin

PDLSCs:

Periodontal ligament stem cells

SCAP:

Stem cells from apical papilla

SHED:

Stem cells from exfoliated human deciduous teeth

TGF-β1:

Transforming growth factor-beta 1

TGSCs:

Tooth germ mesenchymal stem cells

TNF-α:

Tumor necrosis factor α

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pinar Ercal
    • 1
  • Gorke Gurel Pekozer
    • 2
  • Gamze Torun Kose
    • 3
  1. 1.Altinbas UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Istanbul Technical University, Yeditepe UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  3. 3.Yeditepe UniversityIstanbulTurkey

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