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Biomaterials and Regenerative Medicine in Urology

  • N. F. Davis
  • E. M. Cunnane
  • M. R. Quinlan
  • J. J. Mulvihill
  • N. Lawrentschuk
  • D. M. Bolton
  • M. T. Walsh
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1107)

Abstract

Autologous gastrointestinal tissue is the gold standard biomaterial for urinary tract reconstruction despite its long-term neuromechanical and metabolic complications. Regenerative biomaterials have been proposed as alternatives; however many are limited by a poor host derived regenerative response and deficient supportive elements for effective tissue regeneration in vivo. Urological biomaterials are sub-classified into xenogenic extracellular matrices (ECMs) or synthetic polymers. ECMs are decellularised, biocompatible, biodegradable biomaterials derived from animal organs. Synthetic polymers vary in chemical composition but may have the benefit of being reliably reproducible from a manufacturing perspective. Urological biomaterials can be ‘seeded’ with regenerative stem cells in vitro to create composite biomaterials for grafting in vivo. Mesenchymal stem cells are advantageous for regenerative purposes as they self-renew, have long-term viability and possess multilineage differentiation potential. Currently, tissue-engineered biomaterials are developing rapidly in regenerative urology with many important clinical milestones achieved. To truly translate from bench to bedside, regenerative biomaterials need to provide better clinical outcomes than current urological tissue replacement strategies.

Keywords

Biomaterials Biomedical engineering Regenerative medicine Stem cells Tissue engineering 

Abbreviations

ADM:

acellular dermal matrix

ADSCs:

adipose derived stem cells

BAMG:

bladder acellular matrix graft

ECM:

extracellular matrix

PGA/PLA:

polyglycolide/polylactide

PGA:

polyglycolic acid

SIS:

small intestinal submucosa

SMC:

smooth muscle cell

UBM:

urinary bladder matrix

VECM:

vascular extracellular matrix

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. F. Davis
    • 1
  • E. M. Cunnane
    • 2
  • M. R. Quinlan
    • 1
  • J. J. Mulvihill
    • 2
  • N. Lawrentschuk
    • 1
  • D. M. Bolton
    • 1
  • M. T. Walsh
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of UrologyThe Austin HospitalHeidelbergAustralia
  2. 2.School of Engineering, Bernal Institute, Health Research Institute, University of LimerickLimerickIreland

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