Important Issues in Ecotoxicological Investigations Using Earthworms

  • Mirna VelkiEmail author
  • Sandra Ečimović
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 239)


The importance and beneficial effects of earthworms on soil structure and quality is well-established. In addition, earthworms have proved to be important model organisms for investigation of pollutant effects on soil ecosystems. In ecotoxicological investigations effects of various pollutants on earthworms were assessed. But some important issues regarding the effects of pollutants on earthworms still need to be comprehensively addressed. In this review several issues relevant to soil ecotoxicological investigations using earthworms are emphasized and guidelines that should be adopted in ecotoxicological investigations using earthworms are given. The inclusion of these guidelines in ecotoxicological studies will contribute to the better quantification of impacts of pollutants and will allow more accurate prediction of the real field effects of pollutants to earthworms.


Ecotoxicology Earthworms Soil ecosystems Risk assessment Biomarker responses Toxic effects Pollutants Pollutant mixtures Hormesis Microcosmic systems Experimental conditions Temperature change 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiologyJosip Juraj Strossmayer University of OsijekOsijekCroatia

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