Advertisement

Influence of Nanotoxicity on Human Health and Environment: The Alternative Strategies

  • Buddolla Viswanath
  • Sanghyo Kim
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 242)

Abstract

Currently, nanotechnology revolutionizing both scientific and industrial community due to their applications in the fields of medicine, environmental protection, energy, and space exploration. Despite of the evident benefits of nanoparticles, there are still open questions about the influence of these nanoparticles on human health and environment. This is one of the critical issues that have to be addressed in the near future, before massive production of nanomaterials. Manufactured nanoparticles, which are finding ever-increasing applications in industry and consumer products fall into the category of emerging contaminants with ecological and toxicological effects on populations, communities and ecosystems. The existing experimental knowledge gave evidence that inhaled nanoparticles are less efficiently separated than larger particles by the macrophage clearance mechanisms and these nanoparticles are known to translocate through the lymphatic, circulatory and nervous systems to many tissues and organs, including the brain. In this review we highlight adverse impacts of nanoparticles on human and the environment with special emphasis on green nanoscience as a sustainable alternative.

Keywords

Nanomaterials Nanotoxicology Health Environment Green synthesis 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the R&D Program for Society of the National Research Foundation (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (2013M3C8A3078806 and 2015M3A9E2031372).

Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

References

  1. Ahmad A, Mukherjee P, Senapati S, Mandal D, Khan MI, Kumar R (2003) Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Colloids Surf 28:313–318Google Scholar
  2. Alfaro-Moreno E, Nawrot TS, Nemmar A (2007) Particulate matter in the environment: pulmonary and cardiovascular effects. Curr Opin Pulm Med 13:98–106Google Scholar
  3. Alvarez-Román R, Naik A, Kalia YN, Guy RH, Fessi H (2004) Skin penetration and distribution of polymeric nanoparticles. J Control Release 99:53–62Google Scholar
  4. Anastas PT, Warner JC (1998) Green chemistry: theory and practice. Oxford University Press, Oxford England, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Arts JH, Hadi M, Irfan MA, Keene AM, Kreiling R, Lyon D, Maier M, Michel K, Petry T, Sauer UG, Warheit D, Wiench K, Wohlleben W, Landsiedel R (2015) A decision-making framework for the grouping and testing of nanomaterials (DF4nanoGrouping). Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 71(2 Suppl):S1–S27Google Scholar
  6. Aschberger K, Johnston HJ, Stone V, Aitken RJ, Tran CL, Hankin SM, Peters SA, Christensen FM (2010) Review of fullerene toxicity and exposure—appraisal of a human health risk assessment, based on open literature. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 58:455–473Google Scholar
  7. Auffan M, Rose J, Bottero JY, Lowry GV, Jolivet JP, Wiesner MR (2009) Towards a definition of inorganic nanoparticles from an environmental, health and safety perspective. Nat Nanotechnol 4:634–641Google Scholar
  8. Awasthi KK, John PJ, Awasthi A, Awasthi K (2013) Multi walled carbon nano tubes induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino mice. Micron 44:359–364Google Scholar
  9. Baalousha M, Lead JR (2009) Overview of nanoscience in the environment. In: Emma S, Jamie RL (eds) Environmental and human health impacts of nanotechnology. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Hoboken, NJ, pp 1–25Google Scholar
  10. Baker TJ, Tyler CR, Galloway TS (2014) Impacts of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles on marine organisms. Environ Pollut 186:257–271Google Scholar
  11. Balbus JM, Maynard AD, Colvin VL (2007) Report: hazard assessment for nanoparticles-report from an interdisciplinary workshop. Environ Health Perspect 115:1654–1659Google Scholar
  12. Batley GE, Kirby JK, McLaughlin MJ (2013) Fate and risks of nanomaterials in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Acc Chem Res 46:854–862Google Scholar
  13. Bazaka K, Jacob MV, Ostrikov KK (2016) Sustainable life cycles of natural-precursor-derived nanocarbons. Chem Rev 116:163. doi: 10.1021/acs.chemrev.5b00566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Beddoes CM, Case CP, Briscoe WH (2015) Understanding nanoparticle cellular entry: a physicochemical perspective. Adv Colloid Interface Sci 218:48–68Google Scholar
  15. Behra R, Krug H (2008) Nanoecotoxicology: nanoparticles at large. Nat Nanotechnol 3:253–254Google Scholar
  16. Bergin IL, Witzmann FA (2013) Nanoparticle toxicity by the gastrointestinal route: evidence and knowledge gaps. Int J Biomed Nanosci Nanotechnol 3:1–2Google Scholar
  17. Bianco C, Kezic S, Visser MJ, Pluut O, Adami G, Krystek P (2015) Pilot study on the identification of silver in skin layers and urine after dermal exposure to a functionalized textile. Talanta 136:23–28Google Scholar
  18. Bottini M, Bruckner S, Nika K, Bottini N, Bellucci S, Magrini A, Bergamaschi A, Mustelin T (2006) Multi-walled carbon nanotubes induce T lymphocyte apoptosis. Toxicol Lett 160:121–126Google Scholar
  19. Boxall AB, Tiede K, Chaudhry Q (2007) Engineered nanomaterials in soils and water: how do they behave and could they pose a risk to human health? Nanomedicine (Lond) 2:919–927Google Scholar
  20. Braakhuis HM, Gosens I, Krystek P, Boere JA, Cassee FR, Fokkens PH, Post JA, van Loveren H, Park MV (2014) Particle size dependent deposition and pulmonary inflammation after short-term inhalation of silver nanoparticles. Part Fibre Toxicol. doi: 10.3109/17435390.2015.1012184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Braakhuis HM, Oomen AG, Cassee FR (2015) Grouping nanomaterials to predict their potential to induce pulmonary inflammation. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2015.11.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Braydich-Stolle LK, Schaeublin NM, Murdock RC, Jiang J, Biswas P, Schlager JJ, Hussain SM (2009) Crystal structure mediates mode of cell death in TiO2 nanotoxicity. J Nanopart Res 11:1361–1374Google Scholar
  23. Brenner SA, Neu-Baker NM, Eastlake AC, Beaucham CC, Geraci CL (2016) NIOSH Field Studies Team assessment: worker exposure to aerosolized metal oxide nanoparticles in a semiconductor fabrication facility. J Occup Environ Hyg 12:1–31Google Scholar
  24. Bumbudsanpharoke N, Choi J, Ko S (2015) Applications of nanomaterials in food packaging. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 15(9):6357–6372Google Scholar
  25. Buzea C, Pacheco II, Robbie K (2007) Nanomaterials and nanoparticles: sources and toxicity. Biointerphases 2(4):17–71Google Scholar
  26. Cahouet A, Denizot B, Hindre F (2002) Biodistribution of dual radiolabeled lipidic nanocapsules in the rat using scintigraphy and gamma counting. Int J Pharm 242:367–371Google Scholar
  27. Camargo PHC, Satyanarayana KG, Wypych F (2009) Nanocomposites: synthesis, structure, properties and new application opportunities. Mater Res 12:1–39Google Scholar
  28. Cena LG, Chisholm WP, Keane MJ, Chen BT (2015) A field study on the respiratory deposition of the nano-sized fraction of mild and stainless steel welding fume metals. J Occup Environ Hyg 12:721–728Google Scholar
  29. Chaudhuri S, Sardar S, Bagchi D, Dutta S, Debnath S, Saha P, Lemmens P, Pal SK (2015) Photoinduced dynamics and toxicity of a cancer drug in proximity of inorganic nanoparticles under visible light. Chemphyschem. doi: 10.1002/cphc.201500905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chen Z, Meng H, Zing G (2006) Acute toxicological effects of copper nanoparticles in vivo. Toxicol Lett 163:109–120Google Scholar
  31. Chen Y, Wang Q, Wang T (2015) Facile large-scale synthesis of brain-like mesoporous silica nanocomposites via a selective etching process. Nanoscale 7:16442–16450Google Scholar
  32. Cinelli M, Coles SR, Sadik O, Karn B, Kirwan K (2016) A framework of criteria for the sustainability assessment of nanoproducts. J Clean Prod 126:277–287Google Scholar
  33. Civeira MS, Pinheiro RN, Gredilla A, de Vallejuelo SF, Oliveira ML, Ramos CG, Taffarel SR, Kautzmann RM, Madariaga JM, Silva LF (2015) The properties of the nano-minerals and hazardous elements: potential environmental impacts of Brazilian coal waste fire. Sci Total Environ 544:892–900Google Scholar
  34. Clarke AG, Robertson LA, Hamilton RS (2004) A Lagrangian model of the evolution of the particulate size distribution of vehicular emissions. Sci Total Environ 334:197–206Google Scholar
  35. Corsi I, Cherr GN, Lenihan HS, Labille J, Hassellov M, Canesi L, Dondero F, Frenzilli G, Hristozov D, Puntes V, Della Torre C, Pinsino A, Libralato G, Marcomini A, Sabbioni E, Matranga V (2014) Common strategies and technologies for the ecosafety assessment and design of nanomaterials entering the marine environment. ACS Nano 8:9694–9709Google Scholar
  36. Cui D, Tian F, Ozkan CS (2005) Effect of single wall carbon nanotubes on human HEK293 cells. Toxicol Lett 155:73–85Google Scholar
  37. Dhawan A, Sharma V (2010) Toxicity assessment of nanomaterials: methods and challenges. Anal Bioanal Chem 398:589–605Google Scholar
  38. Dhawan A, Sharma V, Parmar D (2009) Nanomaterials: a challenge for toxicologists. Nanotoxicology 3:1–9Google Scholar
  39. Di Bona KR, Xu Y, Gray M, Fair D, Hayles H, Milad L, Montes A, Sherwood J, Bao Y, Rasco JF (2015) Short- and long-term effects of prenatal exposure to iron oxide nanoparticles: influence of surface charge and dose on developmental and reproductive toxicity. Int J Mol Sci 16:30251–30268Google Scholar
  40. Dobrovolskaia MA, Shurin M, Shvedova A (2016) Current understanding of interactions between nanoparticles and the immune system. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 5(299):78–89Google Scholar
  41. Dobon A, Cordero P, Kreft F, Ostergaard SR, Antvorskov H, Robertsson M, Smolander M, Hortal M (2011) The sustainability of communicative packaging concepts in the food supply chain. A case study: part 2. Life cycle costing and sustainability assessment. Int J Life Cycle Assess 16:537Google Scholar
  42. Donaldson K, Poland CA (2013) Nanotoxicity: challenging the myth of nano-specific toxicity. Curr Opi Biotechnol 24:724–734Google Scholar
  43. Donaldson K, Aitken R, Tran L, Stone V, Duffin R, Forrest G, Alexander A (2006) Carbon nanotubes: a review of their properties in relation to pulmonary toxicology and workplace safety. Toxicol Sci 92:5–22Google Scholar
  44. Donaldson K, Murphy FA, Duffin R, Poland CA (2010) Asbestos, carbon nanotubes and the pleural mesothelium: a review of the hypothesis regarding the role of long fibre retention in the parietal pleura, inflammation and mesothelioma. Part Fibre Toxicol 7:5. doi: 10.1186/1743-8977-7-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Dunford RA, Salinaro L (1997) Chemical oxidation and DNA damage catalysed by inorganic sunscreen ingredients. FEBS Lett 418:87–90Google Scholar
  46. Eckelman MJ, Zimmerman JB, Anastas PT (2008) Towards green nano—E-factor analysis of several nanomaterials syntheses. J Industrial Ecol 12:316–328Google Scholar
  47. El-Ansary A, Al-Daihan S, Bacha AB, Kotb M (2015) Toxicity of novel nanosized formulations used in medicine. Methods Mol Biol 1028:47–74Google Scholar
  48. Emmanuel R, Karuppiah C, Chen SM, Palanisamy S, Padmavathy S, Prakash P (2014) Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles for trace level detection of a hazardous pollutant (nitrobenzene) causing methemoglobinaemia. J Hazard Mater 279:117–124Google Scholar
  49. Fan J, Sun Y, Wang S, Li Y, Zeng X, Cao Z, Yang P, Song P, Wang Z, Xian Z, Gao H, Chen Q, Cui D, Ju D (2015) Inhibition of autophagy overcomes the nanotoxicity elicited by cadmium-based quantum dots. Biomaterials 78:102–114Google Scholar
  50. Favi PM, Valencia MM, Elliott PR, Restrepo A, Gao M, Huang H, Pavon JJ, Webster TJ (2015) Shape and surface chemistry effects on the cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of metallic nanorods and nanospheres. J Biomed Mater Res A 103:3940–3955Google Scholar
  51. Ferrari M (2005) Cancer nanotechnology: opportunities and challenges. Nat Rev Cancer 5:161–171Google Scholar
  52. Fischman M, Storey E, McCunney RJ, Kosnett K (2011) National institute for occupational safety and health nanomaterials and worker health conference—medical surveillance session summary report. J Occup Environ Med 53:S35–S37Google Scholar
  53. Gambardella C, Morgana S, Bari GD, Ramoino P, Bramini M, Diaspro A, Falugi C, Faimali M (2015) Multidisciplinary screening of toxicity induced by silica nanoparticles during sea urchin development. Chemosphere 139:486–495Google Scholar
  54. Gao GY, Chen ML, Li MY, Yang ZB, Li ZP, Mei XG (2015a) Current status and prospect of translational medicine in nanotechnology. Yao Xue Xue Bao 50:919–922Google Scholar
  55. Gao Y, Jin B, Shen W, Sinko P, Xie X, Zhang H, Jia L (2015b) China and the United States—global partners, competitors and collaborators in nanotechnology development. Nanomedicine 12(1):13–19, pii: S1549-9634(15)00181-1Google Scholar
  56. Geetha P, Latha MS, Pillai SS, Koshy M (2015) Nanoalginate based biosorbent for the removal of lead ions from aqueous solutions: equilibrium and kinetic studies. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 122:17–23Google Scholar
  57. Ghodake G, Vassiliadis VS, Choi JH, Jang J, Lee DS (2015) Facile synthesis of gold nanoparticles by amino acid asparagine: selective sensing of arsenic. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 15:7235–7239Google Scholar
  58. Ghodake G, Kim DY, Jo JH, Jang J, Lee DS (2016) One-step green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using casein hydrolytic peptides and their anti-cancer assessment using the DU145 cell line. J Ind Eng Chemist 33:1–6Google Scholar
  59. Gidhagen L, Johansson C, Omstedt G (2004) Model simulations of NOx and ultrafine particles close to a Swedish highway. Environ Sci Tech 38:6730–6740Google Scholar
  60. Gopee NV, Roberts DW, Webb P (2007) Migration of intradermally injected quantum dots to sentinel organs in mice. Toxicol Sci 98:249–257Google Scholar
  61. Gouin T, Roche N, Lohmann R, Hodges G (2011) A thermodynamic approach for assessing the environmental exposure of chemicals absorbed to microplastic. Environ Sci Technol 45:1466–1472Google Scholar
  62. Green M, Howman E (2005) Semiconductor quantum dots and free radical induced DNA nicking. Chem Commun (Camb) 1:121–123Google Scholar
  63. Grillo R, Rosa AH, Fraceto LF (2015) Engineered nanoparticles and organic matter: a review of the state-of-the-art. Chemosphere 119C:608–619Google Scholar
  64. Grimsdale AC, Chan KL, Martin RE, Jokisz PG, Holmes AB (2009) Synthesis of light emitting conjugated polymers for applications in electroluminescent devices. Chem Rev 109:897–1091Google Scholar
  65. Guadagnini R, Halamoda Kenzaoui B, Walker L, Pojana G, Magdolenova Z, Bilanicova D, Saunders M, Juillerat-Jeanneret L, Marcomini A, Huk A, Dusinska M, Fjellsbø LM, Marano F, Boland S (2015) Toxicity screenings of nanomaterials: challenges due to interference with assay processes and components of classic in vitro tests. Nanotoxicology 9:13–24Google Scholar
  66. Hagens WI, Oomen AG, de Jong WH (2007) What do we (need to) know about the kinetic properties of nanoparticles in the body? Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 49:217–219Google Scholar
  67. Haliullin TO, Zalyalov RR, Shvedova AA, Tkachov AG (2015) Hygienic evaluation of multilayer carbon nanotubes. Med Tr Prom Ekol 7:37–42Google Scholar
  68. Hamilton RF Jr, Wu NN, Porter D (2009) Particle length-dependent titanium dioxide nanomaterials toxicity and bioactivity. Part Fibre Toxicol 6:35–45Google Scholar
  69. Handy RD, Vonder Kammer F, Lead JR (2008) The ecotoxicology and chemistry of manufactured nanoparticles. Ecotoxicology 4:257–264Google Scholar
  70. Hartmann NIB, Skjolding LM, Hansen SF, Baun A, Kjølholt J, Gottschalk F (2014) Environmental fate and behaviour of nanomaterials: new knowledge on important transfomation processes. Copenhagen K, Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Project No. 1594Google Scholar
  71. Hassellöv M, Readman JW, Ranville JF, Tiede K (2008) Nanoparticle analysis and characterization methodologies in environmental risk assessment of engineered nanoparticles. Ecotoxicology 17:344–361Google Scholar
  72. Haynes CL (2010) The emerging field of nanotoxicology. Anal Bioanal Chem 398:587–588Google Scholar
  73. Hougaard KS, Campagnolo L, Chavatte-Palmer P, Tarrade A, Rousseau-Ralliard D, Valentino S, Park MV, de Jong WH, Wolterink G, Piersma AH, Ross BL, Hutchison GR, Hansen JS, Vogel U, Jackson P, Slama R, Pietroiusti A, Cassee FR (2015) A perspective on the developmental toxicity of inhaled nanoparticles. Reprod Toxicol 56:118–140Google Scholar
  74. Hussain I, Singh NB, Singh A, Singh H, Singh SC (2015) Green synthesis of nanoparticles and its potential application. Biotechnol Lett. doi: 10.1007/s10529-015-2026-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Hutchison JE (2008) Greener nanoscience: a proactive approach to advancing applications and reducing implications of nanotechnology. ACS Nano 2:395–402Google Scholar
  76. Iavicoli I, Leso V, Ricciardi W, Hodson LL, Hoover MD (2014) Opportunities and challenges of nanotechnology in the green economy. Environ Health 13:78Google Scholar
  77. Injac R, Prijatelj M, Strukelj B (2013) Fullerenol nanoparticles: toxicity and antioxidant activity. Methods Mol Biol 1028:75–100Google Scholar
  78. Jafar G, Hamzeh G (2013) Ecotoxicity of nanomaterials in soil. Ann Biol Res 4:86–92Google Scholar
  79. Jang MH, Bae SJ, Lee SK, Lee YJ, Hwang YS (2014) Effect of material properties on stability of silver nanoparticles in water. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 14:9665–9669Google Scholar
  80. Jeannet N, Fierz M, Schneider S, Künzi L, Baumlin N, Salathe M, Burtscher H, Geiser M (2015) Acute toxicity of silver and carbon nanoaerosols to normal and cystic fibrosis human bronchial epithelial cells. Nanotoxicology 26:1–13Google Scholar
  81. Jeliazkova N, Chomenidis C, Doganis P, Fadeel B, Grafström R, Hardy B, Hastings J, Hegi M, Jeliazkov V, Kochev N, Kohonen P, Munteanu CR, Sarimveis H, Smeets B, Sopasakis P, Tsiliki G, Vorgrimmler D, Willighagen E (2015) The eNanoMapper database for nanomaterial safety information. Beilstein J Nanotechnol 6:1609–1634Google Scholar
  82. Jia G, Wang H, Yan L, Wang X, Pei R, Yan T, Zhao Y, Guo X (2005) Cytotoxicity of carbon nanomaterials: single-wall nanotube multi-wall nanotube, and fullerene. Environ Sci Technol 39:1378–1383Google Scholar
  83. Journeay WS, Suri SS, Moralez JG (2008) Rosette nanotubes show low acute pulmonary toxicity in vivo. Int J Nanomed 3:373–383Google Scholar
  84. Kahru A, Dubourguier HC (2010) From ecotoxicology to nanoecotoxicology. Toxicology 269:105–119Google Scholar
  85. Kahru A, Ivask A (2013) Mapping the dawn of nanoecotoxicological research. Acc Chem Res 46:823–833Google Scholar
  86. Kashi TS, Eskandarion S, Esfandyari-Manesh M, Marashi SM, Samadi N, Fatemi SM, Atyabi F, Eshraghi S, Dinarvand R (2012) Improved drug loading and antibacterial activity of minocycline-loaded PLGA nanoparticles prepared by solid/oil/water ion pairing method. Int J Nanomed 7:221–234Google Scholar
  87. Kaur IP, Kakkar V, Deol PK, Yadav M, Singh M, Sharma I (2014) Issues and concerns in nanotech product development and its commercialization. J Control Release 193:51–62Google Scholar
  88. Keller J, Wohlleben W, Ma-Hock L, Strauss V, Gröters S, Küttler K, Wiench K, Herden C, Oberdörster G, van Ravenzwaay B, Landsiedel R (2014) Time course of lung retention and toxicity of inhaled particles: short-term exposure to nano-Ceria. Arch Toxicol 88:2033–2059Google Scholar
  89. Kermanizadeh A, Gosens I, MacCalman L, Johnston H, Danielsen PH, Jacobsen NR, Lenz AG, Fernandes T, Schins RP, Cassee FR, Wallin H, Kreyling W, Stoeger T, Loft S, Møller P, Tran L, Stone V (2016) A multilaboratory toxicological assessment of a panel of 10 engineered nanomaterials to human health—ENPRA project—the highlights, limitations, and current and future challenges. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev 19:1–28Google Scholar
  90. Kim JS, Yoon T-J, Yu KN, Kim BG, Park SJ, Kim HW, Lee KH, Park SB, Lee J-K, Cho MH (2006) Toxicity and tissue distribution of magnetic nanoparticles in mice. Toxicol Sci 89:338–347Google Scholar
  91. Kim JH, Nam DH, Park CB (2014) Nanobiocatalytic assemblies for artificial photosynthesis. Curr Opin Biotechnol 28:1–9Google Scholar
  92. Kirchner C, Liedl T, Kudera S (2005) Cytotoxicity of colloidal CdSe and CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles. Nano Lett 5:331–338Google Scholar
  93. Kovacic P, Somanathan R (2009) Pulmonary toxicity and environmental contamination: radicals, electron transfer, and protection by antioxidants. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 201:41–69Google Scholar
  94. Kuempel ED, Geraci CL, Schulte PA (2012) Risk assessment and risk management of nanomaterials in the workplace: translating research to practice. Ann Occup Hyg 56:491–505Google Scholar
  95. Kuhn M, Ivleva NP, Klitzke S, Niessner R, Baumann T (2015) Investigation of coatings of natural organic matter on silver nanoparticles under environmentally relevant conditions by surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Sci Total Environ 535:122–130Google Scholar
  96. Kumar S, Sharma A, Tripathi B, Srivastava S, Agrawal S, Singh M, Awasthi K, Vijay YK (2010) Enhancement of hydrogen gas permeability in electrically aligned MWCNT-PMMA composite membranes. Micron 41:909–1014Google Scholar
  97. Kumar V, Kumari A, Guleria P, Yadav SK (2012) Evaluating the toxicity of selected types of nanochemicals. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 215:39–121Google Scholar
  98. Kumar S, Lather V, Pandita D (2015) Green synthesis of therapeutic nanoparticles: an expanding horizon. Nanomedicine (Lond) 10:2451–2471Google Scholar
  99. Lademann J, Weigmann H, Rickmeyer C (1999) Penetration of titanium dioxide microparticles in a sunscreen formulation into the horny layer and the follicular orifice. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol 12:247–256Google Scholar
  100. Lam CW, James JT, Mc Cluskey R (2004) Pulmonary toxicity of single-wall nanotubes in mice 7 and 90 days after intratracheal instillation. Toxicol Sci 77:126–134Google Scholar
  101. Lambert S, Sinclair C, Boxall A (2014) Occurrence, degradation, and effect of polymer-based materials in the environment. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 227:1–53Google Scholar
  102. Landsiedel R, Ma-Hock L, Kroll A (2010) Testing metal-oxide nanomaterials for human safety. Adv Mater 22:2601–2627Google Scholar
  103. Lehto M, Karilainen T, Róg T, Cramariuc O, Vanhala E, Tornaeus J, Taberman H, Jänis J, Alenius H, Vattulainen I, Laine O (2014) Co-exposure with fullerene may strengthen health effects of organic industrial chemicals. PLoS One 9(12), e114490Google Scholar
  104. Leo BF, Chen S, Kyo Y, Herpoldt KL, Terrill NJ, Dunlop IE, McPhail DS, Shaffer MS, Schwander S, Gow A, Zhang J, Chung KF, Tetley TD, Porter AE, Ryan MP (2013) The stability of silver nanoparticles in a model of pulmonary surfactant. Environ Sci Technol 47:11232–11240Google Scholar
  105. Lewinski N, Colvin V, Drezek R (2008) Cytotoxicity of nanoparticles. Small 4:26–49Google Scholar
  106. Li XQ, Elliott DW, Zhang WX (2006) Zero-valent iron nanoparticles for abatement of environmental pollutants: materials and engineering aspects. Crit Rev Solid State Mater Sci 31:111–122Google Scholar
  107. Linkov I, Kurth MH, Hristozov D, Keisler JM (2015) Nanotechnology: promoting innovation through analysis and governance. Environ Syst Decis 35:22–23Google Scholar
  108. Liou SH, Tsou TC, Wang SL, Li LA, Chiang HC, Li WF et al (2012) Epidemiological study of health hazards among workers handling engineered nanomaterials. J Nanopart 14:878Google Scholar
  109. Liu Z, Tabakman S, Welsher K, Dai HJ (2009) Carbon nanotubes in biology and medicine in vitro and in vivo detection, imaging and drug delivery. Nano Res 2:85–120Google Scholar
  110. Liu H, Liu T, Wang H, Li L, Tan L, Fu C, Nie G, Chen D, Tang F (2013) Impact of PEGylation on the biological effects and light heat conversion efficiency of gold nanoshells on silica nanorattles. Biomaterials 34:6967–6975Google Scholar
  111. Liu Y, Deng H, Xiao C, Xie C, Zhou X (2014) Cytotoxicity of calcium rectorite micro/nanoparticles before and after organic modification. Chem Res Toxicol 27:1401–1410Google Scholar
  112. Lockman PR, Koziara JM, Mumper RJ, Allen DD (2004) Nanoparticle surface charges alter blood-brain barrier integrity and permeability. J Drug Target 12:635–641Google Scholar
  113. Loux NT, Su YS, Hassan SM (2011) Issues in assessing environmental exposures to manufactured nanomaterials. Int J Environ Res Public Health 8:3562–3578Google Scholar
  114. Lovric J, Bazzi HS, Cuie Y, Fortin GRA, Winnik FM, Maysinger D (2005) Differences in subcellular distribution and toxicity of green and red emitting CdTe quantum dots. J Mol Med 83:377–385Google Scholar
  115. Lowry GV, Gregory KB, Apte SC, Lead JR (2012) Transformations of nanomaterials in the environment. Environ Sci Technol 46:6893–6899Google Scholar
  116. Lucarelli M, Gatti AM, Savarino G (2004) Innate defence functions of macrophages can be biased by nano-sized ceramic and metallic particles. Mast cell activation and its relation to proinflammatory cytokine production in the rheumatoid lesion. Eur Cytokine Netw 15:339–346Google Scholar
  117. Lv M, Huang W, Chen Z, Jiang H, Chen J, Tian Y, Zhang Z, Xu F (2015) Metabolomics techniques for nanotoxicity investigations. Bioanalysis 7:1527–1544Google Scholar
  118. Ma S, Lin D (2013) The biophysicochemical interactions at the interfaces between nanoparticles and aquatic organisms: adsorption and internalization. Environ Sci Process Impacts 15:145Google Scholar
  119. Ma J, Mercer RR, Barger M, Schwegler-Berry D, Cohen JM, Demokritou P, Castranova V (2015) Effects of amorphous silica coating on cerium oxide nanoparticles induced pulmonary responses. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 288:63–73Google Scholar
  120. Mackevica A, Foss HS (2015) Release of nanomaterials from solid nanocomposites and consumer exposure assessment—a forward-looking review. Nanotoxicology 14:1–50Google Scholar
  121. Mann EE, Thompson LC, Shannahan JH, Wingard CJ (2012) Changes in cardiopulmonary function induced by nanoparticles. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 4:691–702Google Scholar
  122. Marconnet AM, Yamamoto N, Panzer MA, Wardle BL, Goodson KE (2011) Thermal conduction in aligned carbon nanotube-polymer nanocomposites with high packing density. ACS Nano 5:4818–4825Google Scholar
  123. Mashwani ZU, Khan T, Khan MA, Nadhman A (2015) Synthesis in plants and plant extracts of silver nanoparticles with potent antimicrobial properties: current status and future prospects. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 99:9923–9934Google Scholar
  124. Matranga V, Corsi I (2012) Toxic effects of engineered nanoparticles in the marine environment: model organisms and molecular approaches. Mar Environ Res 76:32–40Google Scholar
  125. Mckenzie LC, Hutchison JE (2004) Green nanoscience: an integrated approach to greener products, processes, and applications. Chem Today 2004:25–28Google Scholar
  126. Meesters JA, Veltman K, Hendriks AJ, van de Meent D (2013) Environmental exposure assessment of engineered nanoparticles: why REACH needs adjustment. Integr Environ Assess Manag 9(3):e15–e26Google Scholar
  127. Michael AW, Nguyen HT, Adrian SM, Kannangara GSK, Volk H, Lu GQM (2008) Nanomaterials in soils. Geoderma 146(1–2):291–302Google Scholar
  128. Mitrano DM, Motellier S, Clavaguera S, Nowack B (2015) Review of nanomaterial aging and transformations through the life cycle of nano-enhanced products. Environ Int 77:132–147Google Scholar
  129. Monteiro-Riviere NA, Nemanich RJ, Inman AO (2005) Multi-walled carbon nanotube interactions with human epidermal keratinocytes. Toxicol Lett 155:377–384Google Scholar
  130. Mukhopadhyay SS (2014) Nanotechnology in agriculture: prospects and constraints. Nanotechnol Sci Appl 7:63–71Google Scholar
  131. Nalwa HS (2014) A special issue on reviews in nanomedicine, drug delivery and vaccine development. J Biomed Nanotechnol 10:1635–1640Google Scholar
  132. Nath D, Banerjee P (2013) Green nanotechnology—a new hope for medical biology. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 36:997–1014Google Scholar
  133. Nguyen KC, Rippstein P, Tayabali AF, Willmore WG (2015) Mitochondrial toxicity of cadmium telluride quantum dot nanoparticles in mammalian hepatocytes. Toxicol Sci 146:31–42Google Scholar
  134. Niu X, Zou W, Liu C, Zhang N, Fu C (2009) Modified nanoprecipitation method to fabricate DNA-loaded PLGA nanoparticles. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 35:1375–1383Google Scholar
  135. Nogueira V, Lopes I, Rocha-Santos T, Gonçalves F, Pereira R (2015) Toxicity of solid residues resulting from wastewater treatment with nanomaterials. Aquat Toxicol 165:172–178Google Scholar
  136. Nurkiewicz TR, Porter DW, Barger M (2006) Systemic microvascular dysfunction and inflammation after pulmonary particulate matter exposure. Environ Health Perspect 114:412–419Google Scholar
  137. Oberdorster G (2010) Safety assessment for nanotechnology and nanomedicine. J Intern Med 267:89–105Google Scholar
  138. Oomen AG, Bos PM, Fernandes TF, Hund-Rinke K, Boraschi D, Byrne HJ, Aschberger K, Gottardo S, von der Kammer F, Kühnel D, Hristozov D, Marcomini A, Migliore L, Scott-Fordsmand J, Wick P, Landsiedel R (2014) Concern-driven integrated approaches to nanomaterial testing and assessment—report of the NanoSafety Cluster Working Group 10. Nanotoxicology 8:334–348Google Scholar
  139. Oughton DH, Hertel-Aas T, Pellicer E, Mendoza E, Joner EJ (2008) Neutron activation of engineered nanoparticles as a tool for tracing their environmental fate and uptake in organisms. Environ Toxicol Chem 27:1883–1887Google Scholar
  140. Pal S, Tak YK, Song JM (2007) Does the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles depend on the shape of the nanoparticle? A study of the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol 73:1712–1720Google Scholar
  141. Pantarotto D, Briand JP, Prato M (2004) Translocation of bioactive peptides across cell membranes by carbon nanotubes. Chem Commun (Camb) 26:16–17Google Scholar
  142. Park SY, Lee HU, Lee YC, Choi S, Cho DH, Kim HS, Bang S, Seo S, Lee SC, Won J, Son BC, Yang M, Lee J (2015) Eco-friendly carbon-nanodot-based fluorescent paints for advanced photocatalytic systems. Sci Rep 5:12420. doi: 10.1038/srep12420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Parker JP, Ude Z, Marmion CJ (2016) Exploiting developments in nanotechnology for the preferential delivery of platinum-based anti-cancer agents to tumours: targeting some of the hallmarks of cancer. Metallomics 8(1):43–60Google Scholar
  144. Pattan G, Kaul P (2014) Health hazards associated with nanomaterials. Toxicol Ind Health 30:499–519Google Scholar
  145. Pelclova D, Zdimal V, Fenclova Z, Vlckova S, Turci F, Corazzari I, Kacer P, Schwarz J, Zikova N, Makes O, Syslova K, Komarc M, Belacek J, Navratil T, Machajova M, Zakharov S (2016) Markers of oxidative damage of nucleic acids and proteins among workers exposed to TiO2 (nano)particles. Occup Environ Med 73(2):110–118, pii: oemed-2015-103161Google Scholar
  146. Perez JE, Contreras MF, Vilanova E, Felix LP, Margineanu MB, Luongo G, Porter AE, Dunlop IE, Ravasi T, Kosel J (2015) Cytotoxicity and intracellular dissolution of nickel nanowires. Nanotoxicology 22:1–38Google Scholar
  147. Peters K, Unger RE, Kirkpatrick CJ (2004) Effects of nano-scaled particles on endothelial cell function in vitro: studies on viability, proliferation and inflammation. J Mater Sci Mater Med 15:321–325Google Scholar
  148. Pickering KD, Wiesner MR (2005) Fullerol, sensitized production of reactive oxygen species in aqueous solution. Environ Sci Technol 39:1359–1365Google Scholar
  149. Poland CA, Duffin R, Kinloch I, Maynard A, Wallace WAH, Seaton A (2008) Carbon nanotubes introduced into the abdominal cavity of mice show asbestos-like pathogenicity in a pilot study. Nat Nanotechnol 3:423–428Google Scholar
  150. Polshettiwar V, Basset JM, Astruc D (2012) Nanoscience makes catalysis greener. ChemSusChem 5:6–8Google Scholar
  151. Rashidi K, Shabani A, Saen RF (2015) Using data envelopment analysis for estimating energy saving and undesirable output abatement: a case study in the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) countries. J Clean Product 105:241–252Google Scholar
  152. Ray PC, Yu H, Peter PF (2009) Toxicity and environmental risks of nanomaterials: challenges and future needs. J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev 27:1–35Google Scholar
  153. Reddy VBA, Reddy GK, Madhavi V (2012) Degradation of chlorpyrifos in aqueous solutions with chitosan—stablilized FeO nanoparticles. Int J Sci Innov Discov 2:106–112Google Scholar
  154. Rickerby DG, Morrison M (2007) Nanotechnology and the environment: a European perspective. Sci Technol Adv Mat 8(1-2):19–24Google Scholar
  155. Rocha TL, Gomes T, Sousa VS, Mestre NC, Bebianno MJ (2015) Ecotoxicological impact of engineered nanomaterials in bivalve molluscs: an overview. Mar Environ Res 111:74–88Google Scholar
  156. Rouse JG, Yang J, Ryman-Rasmussen JP (2007) Effects of mechanical flexion on the penetration of fullerene amino acid derivatized peptide nanoparticles through skin. Nano Lett 7:155–160Google Scholar
  157. Russell-Jones GJ (2000) Oral vaccine delivery. J Control Release 65:49–54Google Scholar
  158. Ryman-Rasmussen JP, Riviere JE, Monteiro-Riviere NA (2006) Penetration of intact skin by quantum dots with diverse physicochemical properties. Toxicol Sci 91:159–165Google Scholar
  159. Saathoff JG, Inman AO, Xia XR, Riviere JE, Monteiro-Riviere NA (2011) In vitro toxicity assessment of three hydroxylated fullerenes in human skin cells. Toxicol In Vitro 25:2105–2112Google Scholar
  160. Saini P, Saha SK, Roy P, Chowdhury P, Sinha Babu SP (2015) Evidence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated apoptosis in Setaria cervi induced by green silver nanoparticles from Acacia auriculiformis at a very low dose. Exp Parasitol 160:39–48Google Scholar
  161. Santos SM, Dinis AM, Peixoto F, Ferreira L, Jurado AS, Videira RA (2014) Interaction of fullerene nanoparticles with biomembranes: from the partition in lipid membranes to effects on mitochondrial bioenergetics. Toxicol Sci 138:117–129Google Scholar
  162. Sayes C, Fortner J, Guo W (2004) The differential cytoxicity of water-solute fullerenes. Nano Lett 4:1881–1887Google Scholar
  163. Schaeublin NM, Braydich-Stolle LK, Schrand AM (2012) Surface charge of gold nanoparticles mediates mechanism of toxicity. Nanoscale 3:410–420Google Scholar
  164. Schulte PA, Iavicoli I, Rantanen JH, Dahmann D, Iavicoli S, Pipke R, Guseva Canu I, Boccuni F, Ricci M, Polci ML, Sabbioni E, Pietroiusti A, Mantovani E (2016) Assessing the protection of the nanomaterial workforce. Nanotoxicology. doi: 10.3109/17435390.2015.1132347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Seo YS, Cha SH, Yoon HR, Kang YH, Park Y (2015) Caffeic acid: potential applications in nanotechnology as a green reducing agent for sustainable synthesis of gold nanoparticles. Nat Prod Commun 10:627–630Google Scholar
  166. Shakeel M, Jabeen F, Shabbir S, Asghar MS, Khan MS, Chaudhry AS (2016) Toxicity of nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2-NP) through various routes of exposure: a review. Biol Trace Elem Res 172(1):1–36Google Scholar
  167. Sharma VK, Filip J, Zboril R, Varma RS (2015) Natural inorganic nanoparticles—formation, fate, and toxicity in the environment. Chem Soc Rev 44:8410–8423Google Scholar
  168. Shiohara A, Hoshino A, Hanaki K (2004) On the cytotoxicity caused by quantum dots. Microbiol Immunol 48:669–675Google Scholar
  169. Shvedova AA, Castranova V, Kisin E (2003) Exposure to carbon nanotube material: assessment of nanotube cytotoxicity using human keratinocyte cells. J Toxicol Environ Health A 66:1909–1926Google Scholar
  170. Sigg L, Behra R, Groh K, Isaacson C, Odzak N, Piccapietra F, Röhder L, Schug H, Yue Y, Schirmer K (2014) Chemical aspects of nanoparticle ecotoxicology. Chimia (Aarau) 68:806–811Google Scholar
  171. Simkó M, Mattsson MO (2014) Interactions between nanosized materials and the brain. Curr Med Chem 21:4200–4214Google Scholar
  172. Sly PD, Schüepp K (2012) Nanoparticles and children’s lungs: is there a need for caution? Paediatr Respir Rev 13:71–72Google Scholar
  173. Smulders S, Larue C, Sarret G, Castillo-Michel H, Vanoirbeek J, Hoet PH (2015) Lung distribution, quantification, co-localization and speciation of silver nanoparticles after lung exposure in mice. Toxicol Lett 238:1–6Google Scholar
  174. Som C, Wick P, Krug H, Nowack B (2011) Environmental and health effects of nanomaterials in nanotextiles and façade coatings. Environ Int 37:1131–1142Google Scholar
  175. Soni D, Naoghare PK, Saravanadevi S, Pandey RA (2015) Release, transport and toxicity of engineered nanoparticles. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 234:1–47Google Scholar
  176. Soto K, Garza KM, Murr LE (2007) Cytotoxic effects of aggregated nanomaterials. Acta Biomater 3:351–358Google Scholar
  177. Spruit SL, Hoople GD, Rolfe DA (2015) Just a cog in the machine? The individual responsibility of researchers in nanotechnology is a duty to collectivize. Sci Eng Ethics. doi: 10.1007/s11948-015-9718-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Stander L, Theodore L (2011) Environmental implications of nanotechnology—an update. Int J Environ Res Public Health 8:470–479Google Scholar
  179. Stebounova LV, Guio E, Grassian VH (2011) Silver nanoparticles in simulated biological media: a study of aggregation, sedimentation, and dissolution. J Nanopart Res 13:233–244Google Scholar
  180. Štengl V, Henych J, Janoš P, Skoumal M (2016) Nanostructured metal oxides for stoichiometric degradation of chemical warfare agents. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 236:239–258Google Scholar
  181. Stone V, Nowack B, Baun A, van den Brink N, Fv K, Dusinska M, Handy R, Hankin S, Hassellöv M, Joner E, Fernandes TF (2010) Nanomaterials for environmental studies: classification, reference material issues, and strategies for physico-chemical characterization. Sci Total Environ 408:1745–1754Google Scholar
  182. Sturm R (2015) A computer model for the simulation of nanoparticle deposition in the alveolar structures of the human lungs. Ann Transl Med 3:281. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.2305-5839.2015.11.01CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Tee JK, Ong CN, Bay BH, Ho HK, Leong DT (2015) Oxidative stress by inorganic nanoparticles. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Tian F, Cui D, Schwarz H, Estrada GG, Kobayashi H (2006) Cytotoxicity of single-wall carbon nanotubes on human fibroblasts. Toxicol In Vitro 20:1202–1212Google Scholar
  185. Tiede K, Hanssen SF, Westerhoff P, Fern GJ, Hankin SM, Aitken RJ, Chaudhry Q, Boxall AB (2015) How important is drinking water exposure for the risks of engineered nanoparticles to consumers? Nanotoxicology 12:1–9Google Scholar
  186. Tinkle SS, Antonini JM, Rich BA (2003) Skin as a route of exposure and sensitization in chronic beryllium disease. Environ Health Perspect 111:1202–1208Google Scholar
  187. Tiwari AJ, Marr LC (2010) The role of atmospheric transformations in determining environmental impacts of carbonaceous nanoparticles. J Environ Qual 39:1883–1895Google Scholar
  188. Torres-Lugo M, Garcia M, Record R (2002) Physicochemical behavior and cytotoxic effects of p(methacrylic acid-g-ethylene glycol) nanospheres for oral delivery of proteins. J Control Release 80:197–205Google Scholar
  189. Totsuka Y, Higuchi T, Imai T, Nishikawa A, Nohmi T, Kato T, Masuda S, Kinae N, Hiyoshi K, Ogo S, Kawanishi M, Yagi T, Ichinose T, Fukumori N, Watanabe M, Sugimura T, Wakabayashi K (2009) Genotoxicity of nano/microparticles in in vitro micronuclei, in vivo comet and mutation assay systems. Part Fibre Toxicol 6:23Google Scholar
  190. Vale G, Mehennaoui K, Cambier S, Libralato G, Jomini S, Domingos RF (2015) Manufactured nanoparticles in the aquatic environment-biochemical responses on freshwater organisms: a critical overview. Aquat Toxicol 170:162–174Google Scholar
  191. Vinothkannan M, Karthikeyan C, Gnana kumar G, Kim AR, Yoo DJ (2015) One-pot green synthesis of reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/Fe3O4 nanocomposites and its catalytic activity toward methylene blue dye degradation. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 136 Pt B:256–264Google Scholar
  192. Völker C, Oetken M, Oehlmann J (2013) The biological effects and possible modes of action of nanosilver. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 223:81–106Google Scholar
  193. Wang H, Wang J, Deng X (2004) Biodistribution of carbon single wall carbon nanotubes in mice. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 4:1019–1024Google Scholar
  194. Wang L, Mao J, Zhang GH (2007) Nano-cerium-element-doped titanium dioxide induces apoptosis of Bel 7402 human hepatoma cells in the presence of visible light. World J Gastroenterol 13:4011–4014Google Scholar
  195. Wang Z, Xu C, Li X, Liu Z (2015) In situ green synthesis of Ag nanoparticles on tea polyphenols-modified graphene and their catalytic reduction activity of 4-nitrophenol. Col Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 485:102–110Google Scholar
  196. Warheit DB, Donner EM (2015) Risk assessment strategies for nanoscale and fine-sized titanium dioxide particles: recognizing hazard and exposure issues. Food Chem Toxicol 85:138–147Google Scholar
  197. Weare W, Scott MR, Warner MG, Hutchison JE (2000) Improved Synthesis of Small (dCORE ≈ 1.5 nm) phosphine-stabilized gold nanoparticles. J Am Chem Soc 122:12890–12891Google Scholar
  198. Winkler D (2015) Recent advances, and unresolved issues, in the application of computational modelling to the prediction of the biological effects of nanomaterials. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2015.12.016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Witschger O, Fabries JF (2005) Particules ultra-fines etsante au travail 1- caracteristiques et effets potentiels sur la santé. INRS—Hygiene et securite du travail—Cahiers de notes documentaires—2e trimester 199:21–35Google Scholar
  200. Yadav T, Mungray AA, Mungray AK (2014) Fabricated nanoparticles: current status and potential phytotoxic threats. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 230:83–110Google Scholar
  201. Yan L, Feng M, Liu J, Wang L, Wang Z (2015) Antioxidant defenses and histological changes in Carassius auratus after combined exposure to zinc and three multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 125:61–71Google Scholar
  202. Yan W, Chen C, Wang L, Zhang D, Li AJ, Yao Z, Shi LY (2016) Facile and green synthesis of cellulose nanocrystal-supported gold nanoparticles with superior catalytic. Carbohydr Polym 140:66–73Google Scholar
  203. Yao M, He L, McClements DJ, Xiao H (2015) Uptake of gold nanoparticles by intestinal epithelial cells: impact of particle size on their absorption, accumulation, and toxicity. J Agric Food Chem 63:8044–8049Google Scholar
  204. Yong SK, Shrivastava M, Srivastava P, Kunhikrishnan A, Bolan N (2015) Environmental applications of chitosan and its derivatives. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 233:1–43Google Scholar
  205. Yuan R, Yu WM, Cheng F, Zhang XB, Ruan Y, Cao ZX, Larré S (2015) Effect of quantum dots on the biological behavior of the EJ human bladder urothelial carcinoma cell line. Mol Med Rep 12:6157–6163Google Scholar
  206. Zhang Z, Kleinstreuer C, Donohue JF (2005) Comparison of micro- and nano-size particle depositions in a human upper airway model. J Aerosol Sci 36:123–129Google Scholar
  207. Zhao X, Cui H, Chen W, Wang Y, Cui B, Sun C, Meng Z, Liu G (2014) Morphology, structure and function characterization of PEI modified magnetic nanoparticles gene delivery system. PLoS One 9(6), e98919Google Scholar
  208. Zharov VP, Mercer KE, Galitovskaya EN, Smeltzer MS (2006) Photothermal nanotherapeutics and nanodiagnostics for selective killing of bacteria targeted with gold nanoparticles. Biophys J 90:619–627Google Scholar
  209. Zhu X, Zhu L, Li Y (2008) Comparative toxicity of several metal oxide nano-particle aqueous suspensions to zebrafish (Danio rerio) early developmental stage. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 43:278–284Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BionanotechnologyGachon UniversitySujeong-Gu, Seongnam-SiRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Gil Medical Center, Graduate Gachon Medical Research InstituteIncheonRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations