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Environmental Pollution, Toxicity Profile and Treatment Approaches for Tannery Wastewater and Its Chemical Pollutants

  • Gaurav Saxena
  • Ram Chandra
  • Ram Naresh Bharagava
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 240)

Abstract

Leather industries are key contributors in the economy of many developing countries, but unfortunately they are facing serious challenges from the public and governments due to the associated environmental pollution. There is a public outcry against the industry due to the discharge of potentially toxic wastewater having alkaline pH, dark brown colour, unpleasant odour, high biological and chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids and a mixture of organic and inorganic pollutants. Various environment protection agencies have prioritized several chemicals as hazardous and restricted their use in leather processing however; many of these chemicals are used and discharged in wastewater. Therefore, it is imperative to adequately treat/detoxify the tannery wastewater for environmental safety. This paper provides a detail review on the environmental pollution and toxicity profile of tannery wastewater and chemicals. Furthermore, the status and advances in the existing treatment approaches used for the treatment and/or detoxification of tannery wastewater at both laboratory and pilot/industrial scale have been reviewed. In addition, the emerging treatment approaches alone or in combination with biological treatment approaches have also been considered. Moreover, the limitations of existing and emerging treatment approaches have been summarized and potential areas for further investigations have been discussed. In addition, the clean technologies for waste minimization, control and management are also discussed. Finally, the international legislation scenario on discharge limits for tannery wastewater and chemicals has also been discussed country wise with discharge standards for pollution prevention due to tannery wastewater.

Keywords

Environment pollution Toxicity profile Waster treatment approaches Anammox technology Constructed wetlands Clean technologies 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors are extremely grateful to the “Science and Engineering Research Board” (SERB), Department of Science & Technology (DST), Government of India (GOI), New Delhi, India for financial support as “Major Research Project” (Grant No.: SB/EMEQ-357/2013) for this work and the University Grant Commission (UGC) Fellowship received by Mr. Gaurav Saxena is also duly acknowledged.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gaurav Saxena
    • 1
  • Ram Chandra
    • 2
  • Ram Naresh Bharagava
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory for Bioremediation and Metagenomic Research (LBMR), Department of Environmental Microbiology (DEM), School for Environmental Sciences (SES)Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (A Central University)LucknowIndia
  2. 2.Environmental Microbiology Section, Environmental Toxicology Group, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (IITR)LucknowIndia

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