Environmental Pollution, Toxicity Profile and Treatment Approaches for Tannery Wastewater and Its Chemical Pollutants

  • Gaurav Saxena
  • Ram Chandra
  • Ram Naresh BharagavaEmail author
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 240)


Leather industries are key contributors in the economy of many developing countries, but unfortunately they are facing serious challenges from the public and governments due to the associated environmental pollution. There is a public outcry against the industry due to the discharge of potentially toxic wastewater having alkaline pH, dark brown colour, unpleasant odour, high biological and chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids and a mixture of organic and inorganic pollutants. Various environment protection agencies have prioritized several chemicals as hazardous and restricted their use in leather processing however; many of these chemicals are used and discharged in wastewater. Therefore, it is imperative to adequately treat/detoxify the tannery wastewater for environmental safety. This paper provides a detail review on the environmental pollution and toxicity profile of tannery wastewater and chemicals. Furthermore, the status and advances in the existing treatment approaches used for the treatment and/or detoxification of tannery wastewater at both laboratory and pilot/industrial scale have been reviewed. In addition, the emerging treatment approaches alone or in combination with biological treatment approaches have also been considered. Moreover, the limitations of existing and emerging treatment approaches have been summarized and potential areas for further investigations have been discussed. In addition, the clean technologies for waste minimization, control and management are also discussed. Finally, the international legislation scenario on discharge limits for tannery wastewater and chemicals has also been discussed country wise with discharge standards for pollution prevention due to tannery wastewater.


Environment pollution Toxicity profile Waster treatment approaches Anammox technology Constructed wetlands Clean technologies 



Authors are extremely grateful to the “Science and Engineering Research Board” (SERB), Department of Science & Technology (DST), Government of India (GOI), New Delhi, India for financial support as “Major Research Project” (Grant No.: SB/EMEQ-357/2013) for this work and the University Grant Commission (UGC) Fellowship received by Mr. Gaurav Saxena is also duly acknowledged.


  1. Ackerley DF, Gonzalez CF, Keyhan M, Blake IIR, Matin A (2004) Mechanism of chromate reduction by the E. coli protein, NfsA, and the role of different chromate reductases in minimizing oxidative stress during chromate reduction. Environ Microbiol 6(8):851–860Google Scholar
  2. Afaq S, Rana KS (2009) Impact of leather dyes on total protein of fresh water teleost, Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham.). Asian J Exp Sci 23(1):299–302Google Scholar
  3. Aguilar JRP, Cabriales JJP, Vega MM (2008) Identification and characterization of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in an artificial wetland that treats wastewater from a tannery. Int J Phytoremediation 10(5):359–370Google Scholar
  4. Aich A, Chattopadhyay B, Datta S, Mukhopadhyay SK (2011) Impact of composite tannery effluent on the amino-transferase activities in a fish biosystem, using Guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) as an experimental model. Toxicol Environ Chem 93(1):85–91Google Scholar
  5. Aich A, Goswami AR, Roy US, Mukhopadhyay SK (2015) Ecotoxicological assessment of tannery effluent using guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) as an experimental model: a biomarker study. J Toxicol Environ Health A 78(4):278–286Google Scholar
  6. Akinici IE, Akinci S (2010) Effect of chromium toxicity on germination and early seedling growth in melon (Cucumis melo L.). African J Biotechnol 9(29):4589–4594Google Scholar
  7. Alam MZ, Ahmad S, Malik A (2009) Genotoxic and mutagenic potential of agricultural soil irrigated with tannery effluents at Jajmau (Kanpur), India. Achieves Environ Contam Toxicol 57(3):463–476Google Scholar
  8. Alam MZ, Ahmad S, Malik A, Ahmad M (2010) Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of tannery effluents used for irrigation at Kanpur, India. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 73(5):1620–1628Google Scholar
  9. Alvarez-Bernal D, Contreras-Ramos SM, Trujillo-Tapia N, Olalde-Portugal V, Frias-Hernandez JT, Dendooven L (2006) Effects of tanneries wastewater on chemical and biological soil characteristics. Appl Soil Ecol 33:269–277Google Scholar
  10. Anjali G, Sabumon PC (2014) Unprecedented development of anammox in presence of organic carbon using seed biomass from a tannery Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP). Bioresour Technol 153:30–38Google Scholar
  11. Apaydin O, Kurt U, Gonullu MT (2009) An investigation on tannery wastewater by electrocoagulation. Glob Nest J 11(4):546–555Google Scholar
  12. Aravindhan R, Madhan B, Rao R, Nair B, Ramasami T (2004) Bioaccumulation of chromium from tannery wastewater an approach for chrome recovery and reuse. Environ Sci Technol 38(1):300–306Google Scholar
  13. Asfaw A, Sime M, Itanna F (2012) Determining the effect of tannery effluent on seeds germination of some vegetable in Ejersa areas of east Shoa. Ethiopia Int J Sci Res 2(12):1–10Google Scholar
  14. Ates E, Orhon D, Tunay O (1997) Characterization of tannery wastewaters for pretreatment-selected case studies. Water Sci Technol 36:217–223Google Scholar
  15. ATSDR (2008) Toxicological profile for cadmium. Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Register. ATSDR, Atlanta, GAGoogle Scholar
  16. Audenaert WTM, Vermeersch Y, Van Hulle SWH, Dejans P, Dumouilin A, Nopens I (2011) Application of a mechanistic UV/hydrogen peroxide model at full-scale: sensitivity analysis, calibration and performance evaluation. Chem Eng J 171(1):113–126Google Scholar
  17. Ayoub GM, Hamzeh A, Semerjian L (2011) Post treatment of tannery wastewater using lime/bittern coagulation and activated carbon adsorption. Desalination 273:359–365Google Scholar
  18. Baccar R, Blanquez P, Bouzid J, Feki M, Attiya H, Sarra M (2011) Decolorization of a tannery dye: from fungal screening to bioreactor application. Biochem Eng J 56(3):184–189Google Scholar
  19. Bakare AA, Okunola AA, Adetunji OA, Jenmi HB (2009) Genotoxicity assessment of a pharmaceutical effluent using four bioassays. Genet Mol Biol 32(2):373–381Google Scholar
  20. Beg KR, Ali S (2008) Chemical contaminants and toxicity of Ganga river sediments from up and downstream area at Kanpur. Am J Environ Sci 4(4):326–336Google Scholar
  21. Bharagava RN, Yadav S, Chandra R (2014) Antibiotic and heavy metal resistance properties of bacteria isolated from the aeration lagoons of common effluent treatment plant (CETP) of tannery industries (Unnao, India). Indian J Biotechnol 13(4):514–519Google Scholar
  22. Bhatnagar MK, Singh R, Gupta S, Bhatnagar P (2013) Study of tannery effluents and its effects on sediments of river Ganga in special reference to heavy metals at Jajmau, Kanpur, India. J Environ Res Dev 8(1):56–59Google Scholar
  23. Calheiros CSC, Duque AF, Moura A, Henriques IS, Correia A, Rangel AOSS, Castro PML (2009a) Changes in the bacterial community structure in two-stage constructed wetlands with different plants for industrial wastewater treatment. Bioresour Technol 100(13):3228–3235Google Scholar
  24. Calheiros CSC, Quiterio PVB, Silva G, Crispim LFC, Brix H, Moura SC, Castro PML (2012) Use of constructed wetland systems with Arundo and Sarcocornia for polishing high salinity tannery wastewater. J Environ Manage 95(1):66–71Google Scholar
  25. Calheiros CSC, Rangel AOSS, Castro PML (2007) Constructed wetland systems vegetated with different plants applied to the treatment of tannery wastewater. Water Res 41(8):1790–1798Google Scholar
  26. Calheiros CSC, Rangel AOSS, Castro PML (2008) Evaluation of different substrates to support the growth of Typha latifolia in constructed wetlands treating tannery wastewater over long-term operation. Bioresour Technol 99(15):6866–6877Google Scholar
  27. Calheiros CSC, Rangel AOSS, Castro PML (2009b) Treatment of industrial wastewater with two-stage constructed wetlands planted with Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis. Bioresour Technol 100(13):3205–3213Google Scholar
  28. Carpenter J, Sharma S, Sharma AK, Verma S (2013) Adsorption of dye by using the solid waste from leather industry as an adsorbent. Int J Eng Sci Invent 2(1):64–69Google Scholar
  29. Chandra R, Bharagava RN, Kapley A, Purohit HJ (2011) Bacterial diversity, organic pollutants and their metabolites in two aeration lagoons of common effluent treatment plant (CETP) during the degradation and detoxification of tannery wastewater. Bioresour Technol 102(3):2333–2341Google Scholar
  30. Chandra R, Bharagava RN, Yadav S, Mohan D (2009) Accumulation and distribution of toxic metals in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Indian mustard (Brassica campestris L.) irrigated with distillery and tannery effluents. J Hazard Mater 162:1514–1521Google Scholar
  31. Chandra R, Saxena G, Kumar V (2015) Phytoremediation of environmental pollutants: an eco-sustainable green technology to environmental management. In: Chandra R (ed) Advances in biodegradation and bioremediation of industrial waste. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL, pp 1–30. doi: 10.1201/b18218-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chen G, Huang MH, Chen L, Chen DH (2011) A batch decolorization and kinetic study of Reactive Black 5 by a bacterial strain Enterobacter sp. GY-1. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 65(6):790–796Google Scholar
  33. Cheung KH, Gu JD (2007) Mechanism of hexavalent chromium detoxification by microorganisms and bioremediation application potential: a review. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 59(1):8–15Google Scholar
  34. Chidambaram AP, Sundaramoorthy A, Murugan K, Baskaran SGL (2009) Chromium induced cytotoxicity in black gram (Vigna mungo L). Iranian J Environ Health Sci Eng 6(1):17–22Google Scholar
  35. Chowdhury M, Mostafa MG, Biswas TK, Saha AK (2013) Treatment of leather industrial effluents by filtration and coagulation processes. Water Resour Ind 3:11–22Google Scholar
  36. Chowdhury SP, Khanna S, Verma SC, Tripathi AK (2004) Molecular diversity of tannic acid degrading bacteria isolated from tannery soil. J Appl Microbiol 97(6):1210–1219Google Scholar
  37. Cooman K, Gajardo M, Nieto J, Bornhardt C, Vidal G (2003) Tannery wastewater characterization and toxicity effects on Daphnia spp. Environ Toxicol 18(1):45–51Google Scholar
  38. Costa CR, Botta CMR, Espindola ELG, Olivi P (2008) Electrochemical treatment of tannery wastewater using DSA® electrodes. J Hazard Mater 153(1-2):616–627Google Scholar
  39. CSIRO (2001) Salinity reduction in tannery effluents in India & Australia. Project proposal to ACIAR by CSIRO textile and fibre technology, Leather Research CentreGoogle Scholar
  40. Dantas TLP, Jose HJ, Moreira RFPM (2003) Fenton and photo-fenton oxidation of tannery wastewater. Acta Sci Technol 25(1):91–95Google Scholar
  41. De Gisi S, Galasso M, De Feo G (2009) Treatment of tannery wastewater through the combination of a conventional activated sludge process and reverse osmosis with a plane membrane. Desalination 249(1):337–342Google Scholar
  42. De Laat J, Le Truong G, Legube B (2004) A comparative study of the effects of chloride, sulfate and nitrate ions on the rates of decomposition of H2O2 and organic compounds by Fe(II)/H2O2 and Fe(III)/H2O2. Chemosphere 55(5):715–723Google Scholar
  43. De Nicola E, Meric S, Gallo M, Iaccarino M, Della Rocca C, Lofrano G (2007) Vegetable and synthetic tannins induce hormesis/toxicity in sea urchin early development and in algal growth. Environ Pollut 146(1):46–54Google Scholar
  44. De Pinho MN (2009) Membrane-based treatment for tanning wastewaters. Can J Civil Eng 36(2):356–362Google Scholar
  45. Di Iaconi C, Del Moro G, De Sanctis M, Rossetti S (2010) A chemically enhanced biological process for lowering operative costs and solid residues of industrial recalcitrant wastewater treatment. Water Res 44(12):3635–3644Google Scholar
  46. Di Iaconi C, Lopez A, Ramadori R, Di Pinto AC, Passino R (2002) Combined chemical and biological degradation of tannery wastewater by a periodic submerged filter (SBBR). Water Res 36(9):2205–2214Google Scholar
  47. Dixit S, Yadav A, Dwivedi PD, Das M (2015) Toxic hazards of leather industry and technologies to combat threat: a review. J Clean Prod 87:39–49Google Scholar
  48. Directive (REACH (EC 1907/2006) for European Regulatory Framework on chemicals namely Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances:
  49. Dogruel S, Genceli EA, Babuna FG, Orhon D (2004) Ozonation of non biodegradable organics in tannery wastewater. J Environ Sci Health 39(7):1705–1715Google Scholar
  50. Dogruel S, Genceli EA, Babuna FG, Orhon D (2006) An investigation on the optimal location of ozonation within biological treatment for a tannery wastewater. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 81(12):1877–1885Google Scholar
  51. Dotro G, Castro S, Tujchneider O, Piovano N, Paris M, Faggi A, Palazolo P, Larsen D, Fitch M (2012) Performance of pilot-scale constructed wetlands for secondary treatment of chromium-bearing tannery wastewaters. J Hazard Mater 239–240:142–151Google Scholar
  52. Dunn K, Maart B, Rose P (2013) Arthrospira (Spirulina) in tannery wastewaters. Part 2: Evaluation of tannery wastewater as production media for the mass culture of Arthrospira biomass. Water SA 59(2):279–284Google Scholar
  53. Durai G, Rajasimmam M (2011) Biological treatment of tannery wastewater: a review. J Environ Sci Technol 4:1–17Google Scholar
  54. ECHA (2010) Candidate list of substances of very high concern for authorization. European Chemical Agency, HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
  55. Eckenfelder WW (2002) Industrial water pollution control. McGraw-Hill, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  56. EcoLinks (2001) Introduction of low pollution processes in leather production. Available from:
  57. El-Bestawy E, Al-Fassi F, Amer R, Aburokba R (2013) Biological treatment of leather-tanning industrial wastewater using free living bacteria. Adv Life Sci Technol 12:46–65Google Scholar
  58. Elmagd AM, Mahmoud MS (2014) Tannery wastewater treatment using activated sludge process system (lab scale modeling). Int J Eng Tech Res 2(5):21–28Google Scholar
  59. El-Sheikh MA, Hazem I, Saleh J, Flora R, AbdEl-Ghany MR (2011) Biological tannery wastewater treatment using two stage UASB reactors. Desalination 276(1-3):253–259Google Scholar
  60. EPA (2007) Ortho-phenylphenol (OPP) & sodium ortho-phenylphenate (SOPP) risk characterization document. Dietary Exposure Health Assessment Section, Medical Toxicology Branch, Department of Pesticide Regulation, California, Environmental Protection Agency, Sacramento, CAGoogle Scholar
  61. Espinoza-Quinones FR, Fornari MMT, Modenes AN, Palacio SM, da Silva FG, Szymanski N, Kroumov AD, Trigueros DEG (2009) Pollutant removal from tannery effluent by electrocoagulation. Chem Eng J 151(1-3):59–65Google Scholar
  62. EU (1998) Directive 98/8/EC of the European Parliament & of the Council of 16 February 1998 Concerning the Placing of Biocidal Products on the MarketGoogle Scholar
  63. EU (2003) Commission Decision of 20 May 2003 Amending Decision 1999/815/EC Concerning measures prohibiting the place on the market of toys and childcare articles intended to be placed in the mouth by children under three years of age made of soft PVC containing certain phthalatesGoogle Scholar
  64. EU Azo Colorants Directive (2002):
  65. Fabbricino M, Naviglio B, Tortora G, d’Antonio L (2013) An environmental friendly cycle for Cr(III) removal and recovery from tannery wastewater. J Environ Manage 117:1–6Google Scholar
  66. Fadali OA, Mugdy YH, Daifullah AAM, Ebrahiem EE, Nassar MM (2004) Removal of chromium from tannery effluents by adsorption. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 39(2):465–472Google Scholar
  67. Fahim NF, Barsoum BN, Khalil MS, Eid AE (2006) Removal of Cr(III) from tannery wastewater using activated carbon from industrial waste. J Hazard Mater 136(2):303–309Google Scholar
  68. FAO (2008) Management of waste from animal product processing. Food and Agricultural Organisation of United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  69. Faouzi M, Merzouki M, Benlemlih M (2013) Contribution to optimize the biological treatment of synthetic tannery effluent by the sequencing batch reactor. J Mater Environ Sci 4(4):532–541Google Scholar
  70. Farabegoli G, Carucci A, Majone M, Rolle E (2004) Biological treatment of tannery wastewater in the presence of chromium. J Environ Manage 71(4):345–349Google Scholar
  71. Fathima N, Rao R, Nair BU (2012) Tannery solid waste to treat toxic liquid wastes: a new holistic paradigm. Environ Eng Sci 29(6):363–372Google Scholar
  72. Gagnon V, Chazarenc F, Comeau Y, Brisson J (2007) Influence of macrophyte species on microbial density and activity in constructed wetlands. Water Sci Technol 56(3):249–254Google Scholar
  73. Gallego-Molina A, Mendoza-Roca JA, Aguado D, Galiana-Aleixandre MV (2013) Reducing pollution from the deliming-bating operation in a tannery. Wastewater reuse by microfiltration membranes. Chem Eng Res Des 91(2):369–376Google Scholar
  74. Ganesh R, Balaji G, Ramanujam RA (2006) Biodegradation of tannery wastewater using sequencing batch reactor-respirometric assessment. Bioresour Technol 97(15):1815–1821Google Scholar
  75. Gao BY, Yue Q, Wang B (2004) Coagulation efficiency and residual aluminum content of ployaluminum silicate chloride in water treatment. Acta Hydrochim Hydrobiol 32(2):125–130Google Scholar
  76. Gorgun E, Insel G, Artan N, Orhon D (2007) Model evaluation of temperature dependency for carbon and nitrogen removal in a full-scale activated sludge plant treating leather-tanning wastewater. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 42(6):747–756Google Scholar
  77. Gupta K, Gaumat S, Mishra K (2012) Studies on phyto-genotoxic assessment of tannery effluent and chromium on Allium cepa. J Environ Biol 33(3):557–563Google Scholar
  78. Gurulakshmi M, Sudarmani DNP, Venba R (2008) Biodegradation of leather acid dye by Bacillus subtilis. Adv Biotech 7:12–19Google Scholar
  79. Haydar S, Aziz JA (2009) Characterization and treatability studies of tannery wastewater using chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT)-a case study of Saddiq Leather Works. J Hazard Mater 163:1076–1083Google Scholar
  80. Hayder S, Azi JA, Ahmad MS (2007) Biological treatment of tannery wastewater using activated sludge process. Pakistan J Eng Appl Sci 1:61–66Google Scholar
  81. Houshyar Z, Khoshfetrat AB, Fatehifar E (2012) Influence of ozonation process on characteristics of pre-alkalized tannery effluents. Chem Eng J 191:59–65Google Scholar
  82. Hussain F, Malik SA, Athar M, Bashir N, Younis U, Mahmood-ul-Hassan MS (2010) Effect of tannery effluents on seed germination and growth of two sunflower cultivars. African J Biotechnol 9(32):5113–5120Google Scholar
  83. Iaconi C, Ramadori R, Lopez A (2009) The effect of ozone on tannery wastewater biological treatment at demonstrative scale. Bioresour Technol 100(23):6121–6124Google Scholar
  84. Iaconi D, Lopez A, Ramadori R, Passino R (2003) Tannery wastewater treatment by sequencing batch biofilm reactor. Environ Sci Technol 37(14):3199–3205Google Scholar
  85. Iaconi D, Bonemazzi F, Lopez A, Ramadori R (2004) Integration of chemical and biological oxidation in a SBBR for tannery wastewater treatment. Water Sci Technol 50(10):107–114Google Scholar
  86. IARC (2004) Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. In: Inorganic & organic lead compounds, vol 87. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, p 10e17 [LID7420]Google Scholar
  87. ILTIP (2010) Indian Leather and Tanning Industry Profile: Italian Trade Commission, pp 1–43Google Scholar
  88. Insel GH, Gorgun E, Artan N, Orhon D (2009) Model based optimization of nitrogen removal in a full scale activated sludge plant. Environ Eng Sci 26(3):471–480Google Scholar
  89. Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive (96/61/EC 1996):
  90. Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive (2008/1/EC 2008): http://eur Scholar
  91. IPPC (2013) Best Available Techniques (BAT) for the tanning of hides and skins. Industrial Emissions Directive (2010/75/EU) Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC). A reference document by European Commission Joint Research Centre (EUJRC). Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg. doi: 10.2788/13548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Islam BI, Musa AE, Ibrahim EH, Sharafa SAA, Elfaki BM (2014) Evaluation and characterization of tannery wastewater. J For Prod Ind 3:141e150Google Scholar
  93. Jain RK, Kapur M, Labana S, Lal B, Sarma PM, Bhattacharya D, Thakur IS (2005) Microbial diversity: application of microorganisms for the biodegradation of xenobiotics. Curr Sci 89(1):101–112Google Scholar
  94. Jawahar AJ, Chinnadurai M, Ponselvan JKS, Annadurai G (1998) Pollution from tanneries and options for treatment of effluent. Indian J Environ Protect 18:672–678Google Scholar
  95. Kang SF (2002) Pre-oxidation and coagulation of textile wastewater by the fenton process. Chemosphere 46(6):923–928Google Scholar
  96. Keharia H, Madamwar D (2003) Bioremediation concepts for treatment of dye containing wastewater: a review. Indian J Exp Biol 41(9):1068–1075Google Scholar
  97. Kennedy LJ, Das KM, Sekaran G (2004) Integrated biological and catalytic oxidation of organics/inorganics in tannery wastewater by rice husk based mesoporous activated carbon-Bacillus sp. Carbon 42(12-13):2399–2407Google Scholar
  98. Khalid A, Arshad M, Crowly DE (2008) Accelerated dechlorination of structurally different azo dyes by newly isolated bacterial strains. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 78(2):361–369Google Scholar
  99. Kierek-Pearson K, Karatan E (2005) Biofilm development in bacteria. Adv Appl Microbiol 57:79–111Google Scholar
  100. Kim I-S, Ekpeghere KI, Ha S-Y, Kim B-S, Song B, Kim J-T, Kim H-G, Koh S-C (2014) Full-scale biological treatment of tannery wastewater using the novel microbial consortium BM-S-1. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 49(3):355–364Google Scholar
  101. Kohli R, Malaviya P (2013) Impact of tannery effluent on germination of various varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L). J Appl Nat Sci 5(2):302–305Google Scholar
  102. Kongjao S, Damronglerd S, Hunsom M (2008) Simultaneous removal of organic and inorganic pollutants in tannery wastewater using electrocoagulation technique. Korean J Chem Eng 25(4):703–709Google Scholar
  103. Kumar K, Sahu O (2013) Design of anaerobic pond for tannery wastewater. Open J Appl Chem Biotechnol 1(2):6–11Google Scholar
  104. Kumar V, Majumdar C, Roy P (2008) Effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals from leather industry effluents on male reproductive system. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 111(3-5):208–216Google Scholar
  105. Kurt U, Apaydin O, Gonullu MT (2007) Reduction of COD in wastewater from an organized tannery industrial region by electro-fenton process. J Hazard Mater 143(1-2):33–40Google Scholar
  106. Lawanda J, Khaidar MS, Llorens J (2009) Feasibility study on the recovery of chromium (III) by polymer enhanced ultrafiltration. Desalination 249(2):577–581Google Scholar
  107. Lefebvre ON, Vasudevan N, Torrijos M, Thanasekaran K, Moletta R (2005) Halophilic biological treatment of tannery soaks liquor in a sequencing batch reactor. Water Res 39(8):1471–1480Google Scholar
  108. Lefebvre ON, Vasudevan N, Torrijosa M, Thanasekaran K, Moletta R (2006) Anaerobic digestion of tannery soak liquor with an aerobic post-treatment. Water Res 40(7):1492–1500Google Scholar
  109. Leta S, Assefa F, Gumaelius L, Dalhammar G (2004) Biological nitrogen and organic matter removal from tannery wastewater in pilot plant operations in Ethiopia. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 66(3):333–339Google Scholar
  110. Lofrano G, Belgiorno V, Gallo M, Raimo A, Meric S (2006) Toxicity reduction in leather tanning wastewater by improved coagulation flocculation process. Glob Nest J 8(2):151–158Google Scholar
  111. Lofrano G, Aydin E, Russo F, Guida M, Belgiorno V, Meric S (2008) Characterization, fluxes and toxicity of leather tanning bath chemicals in a large tanning district area (IT). Water Air Soil Pollut 8:529–542Google Scholar
  112. Lofrano G, Meric S, Zengin GE, Orhon D (2013) Chemical and biological treatment technologies for leather tannery chemicals and wastewaters: a review. Sci Total Environ 461–462:265–281Google Scholar
  113. Lopez-Luna J, Gonzalez-Chavez MC, Esparza-Garcia FJ, Rodriguez-Vazquez R (2009) Toxicity assessment of soil amended with tannery sludge, trivalent chromium and hexavalent chromium, using wheat, oat and sorghum plants. J Hazard Mater 163(23):829–834Google Scholar
  114. Mahmood S, Khalid A, Mahmood T, Arshad M, Ahamad R (2013) Potential of newly isolated bacterial strains for simultaneous removal of hexavalent chromium and reactive Black-5 azo dye from tannery effluent. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 88(8):1506–1513Google Scholar
  115. Mandal T, Dasgupta D, Mandal S, Datta S (2010) Treatment of leather industry by aerobic biological fenton oxidation process. J Hazard Mater 180(1-3):204–211Google Scholar
  116. Mannucci A, Munz G, Mori G, Lubello C (2010) Anaerobic treatment of vegetable tannery wastewaters: a review. Desalination 264(1-2):1–8Google Scholar
  117. Mannucci A, Munz G, Mori G, Lubello C (2014) Factors affecting biological sulfate reduction in tannery wastewater treatment. Environ Eng Manag J 13(4):1005–1012Google Scholar
  118. Mant C, Costa S, Williams J, Tambourgi E (2004) Phytoremediation of chromium by model constructed wetland. Bioresour Technol 97(15):1767–1772Google Scholar
  119. Matsumoto ST, Mnlovani SM, Malaguttii MIA, Dias AL, Fonseca IC, Morales MAM (2006) Genotoxicity and mutagenicity of water contaminated with tannery effluent, as evaluated by the micronucleus test and comet assay using the fish Oreochromis niloticus and chromosome aberrations in onion root tips. Genet Mol Biol 29(1):148–158Google Scholar
  120. Midha V, Dey A (2008) Biological treatment of tannery wastewater for sulfide removal. Int J Chem Sci 6(2):472–486Google Scholar
  121. Modenes AN, Espinoza-Quinones FR, Borba FH, Manenti DR (2012) Performance evaluation of an integrated photo-fenton – electrocoagulation process applied to pollutant removal from tannery effluent in batch system. Chem Eng J 197:1–9Google Scholar
  122. Mohanta MK, Salam MA, Saha AK, Hasan A, Roy AK (2010) Effects of tannery effluents on survival and histopathological changes in different organs of Channa punctatus. Asian J Exp Biol Sci 1(2):294–302Google Scholar
  123. Mondal A, Banerjee PK, Bhattacharjee C, Saha PD (2012) Treatment of chromium present in tannery wastewater using chemical & biological techniques. Elixir Pollut 49:9832–9835Google Scholar
  124. Money CA (2008) Salinity reduction in tannery effluents in India and Australia. Final report on project AS1/2001/005. ACIAR, Canberra, ACTGoogle Scholar
  125. Monitor (2009) Uganda: leather factory faces closure over pollution. Available from:
  126. Monteiro Paschoal FM, Anderson MA, Zanon MV (2009) Simultaneous removal of chromium and leather dye from simulated tannery effluent by photoelectrochemistry. J Hazard Mater 166(1):531–537Google Scholar
  127. Munch CH, Neu T, Kuschk P, Roske I (2007) The root surface as the definitive detail for microbial transformation processes in constructed wetlands-a biofilm characteristic. Water Sci Technol 56(3):271–276Google Scholar
  128. Munz G, De Angelis D, Gori R, Mori G, Casarci M, Lubello C (2009) The role of tannins in conventional angogated membrane treatment of tannery wastewater. J Hazard Mater 164(2-3):733–739Google Scholar
  129. Munz G, Gori R, Cammilli L, Lubello C (2008) Characterization of tannery wastewater and biomass in a membrane bioreactor using respirometric analysis. Bioresour Technol 99(18):8612–8618Google Scholar
  130. Murat S, Insel G, Artan N, Orhon D (2006) Performance evaluation of SBR treatment for nitro-gen removal from tannery wastewater. Water Sci Technol 53(12):275–284Google Scholar
  131. Mwinyihija M (2010) Main pollutants and environmental impacts of the tanning industry. In: Ecotoxicological diagnosis in the Tanning Industry. Springer, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  132. Mwinyihija M (2012) Pollution control and remediation of the tanning effluent. Open Environ Pollut Toxicol J 3:55–64Google Scholar
  133. Nachiyar CV, Rajkumar GS (2003) Degradation of a tannery and textile dye, Navitan Fast Blue S5R by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 19(6):609–614Google Scholar
  134. Nanda S, Sarangi PK, Abraham J (2010) Cyanobacterial remediation of industrial effluents I. Tannery effluents. New York Sci J 3(12):32–36Google Scholar
  135. Naumczyk J, Rusiniak M (2005) Physicochemical and chemical purification of tannery wastewaters. Polish J Environ Stud 14(6):789–797Google Scholar
  136. Navaraj PS, Yasmin J (2012) Toxicological evaluation of tannery industry waste water on Oreochromis mossambicus. African J Environ Sci Technol 6(9):331–336Google Scholar
  137. Noorjahan CM (2014) Physicochemical characteristics, identification of bacteria and biodegradation of industrial effluent. J Bioremed Biodeg 5:229Google Scholar
  138. Onyancha D, Mavura W, Ngila J, Ongoma P, Chacha J (2008) Studies of chromium removal from tannery wastewaters by algae biosorbents, Spirogyra condensate and Rhizocolonium hieroglyphicum. J Hazard Mater 158(2-3):605–614Google Scholar
  139. Oral R, Meric S, De Nicola E, Petruzzelli D, Della Rocca C, Pagano G (2007) Multi-species toxicity evaluation of a chromium-based leather tannery wastewater. Desalination 211(1-3):48–57Google Scholar
  140. Osugi ME, Rajeshwar K, Ferraz ERA, de Oliveira DP, Araujo AR, Zanoni MVW (2009) Comparison of oxidation efficiency of disperse dyes by chemical and photoelectrocatalytic chlorination and removal of mutagenic activity. Electrochim Acta 54(7):2086–2093Google Scholar
  141. Patel Y, Mehta C, Gupte A (2012) Assessment of biological decolorization and degradation of sulfonated di-azo dye Acid Maroon V by isolated bacterial consortium EDPA. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 75:187–193Google Scholar
  142. Pokrywiecki Sauer T, Casaril L, Bertoldi Oberziner AL, Jose J, Peralta H, Muniz Moreira R (2006) Advanced oxidation processes applied to tannery wastewater containing Direct Black 38-elimination and degradation kinetics. J Hazard Mater 135(1-3):274–279Google Scholar
  143. Praveena M, Sandeep V, Kavitha N, Jayantha Rao K (2013) Impact of tannery effluent, chromium on hematological parameters in a fresh water fish, Labeo Rohita (Hamilton). Res J Animal Veterinary Fishery Sci 1(6):1–5Google Scholar
  144. Preethi S, Anumary A, Kumar MA, Thanikaivelan P (2013) Probing horseradish peroxidase catalyzed degradation of azo dye from tannery wastewater. SpringerPlus 2:341Google Scholar
  145. Preethi V, Parama Kalyani KS, Iyappan K, Srinivasakannan C, Balasubramaniam NN, Vedaraman N (2009) Ozonation of tannery effluent for removal of COD and color. J Hazard Mater 166(1):150–154Google Scholar
  146. Rai UN, Dwivedi S, Tripathi RD, Shukla OP, Singh NK (2005) Algal biomass: an economical method for removal of chromium from tannery effluent. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 75(2):297–303Google Scholar
  147. Raj A, Kumar S, Haq I, Kumar M (2014) Detection of tannery effluents induced DNA damage in mung bean by use of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers. Article ID 727623Google Scholar
  148. Rajasimman M, Jayakumar M, Ravindranath E, Chitra K (2007) Treatment of solid and liquid wastes from tanneries in an UASB reactor. Proceedings of 60th Annual Session of Indian Institute of Chemical Engineers, CHEMCON-2007, Kolkata, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  149. Ram B, Bajpai PK, Parwana HK (1999) Kinetics of chrome-tannery effluent treatment by the activated sludge system. Process Biochem 35(3-4):255–265Google Scholar
  150. Rameshraja D, Suresh S (2011) Treatment of tannery wastewater by various oxidation and combined processes. Int J Environ Res 5(2):349–360Google Scholar
  151. Ramteke PW, Awasthi S, Srinath T, Joseph B (2010) Efficiency assessment of common effluent treatment plant (CETP) treating tannery effluents. Environ Monit Assess 169(1-4):125–131Google Scholar
  152. Ranganathan K, Kabadgi SD (2011) Studies on feasibility of reverse osmosis (membrane) technology for treatment of tannery wastewater. J Environ Protect 2:37–46Google Scholar
  153. Rao JR, Thanikaivelan P, Sreeram KJ, Nair BU (2004) Tanning studies with basic chromium sulfate prepared using chrome shavings as a reductant: a call for “wealth from waste” approach to the tanning industry. J Am Leather Chem Assoc 99:170–176Google Scholar
  154. Rodrigues MAS, Amado FDR, Xavier JLN, Streit KF, Bernardes AM, Ferreira JZ (2008) Application of photoelectrochemical-electrodialysis treatment for the recovery and reuse of water from tannery effluents. J Clean Prod 16(5):605–611Google Scholar
  155. Sahasranaman A, Jackson M (2005) Salinity reduction tannery effluents in India and Australia: project review. ACIAR, Canberra, ACTGoogle Scholar
  156. Sahu RK, Katiyar S, Tiwari J, Kisku GC (2007) Assessment of drain water receiving effluent from tanneries and its impact on soil and plants with particular emphasis on bioaccumulation of heavy metals. J Environ Biol 28(3):685–690Google Scholar
  157. Sangeetha R, Kamalahasan B, Karthi N (2012) Use of tannery effluent for irrigation: an evaluative study on the response of antioxidant defenses in maize (Zea mays). Int Food Res J 19(2):607–610Google Scholar
  158. Santosa SJ, Siswanta D, Sudiono S, Utarianingrum R (2008) Chitin–humic acid hybrid as adsorbent for Cr(III) in effluent of tannery wastewater treatment. Appl Surf Sci 254:7846–7850Google Scholar
  159. Saratale RG, Saratale GD, Chang JS, Govindwar SP (2010) Decolorization and biodegradation of reactive dyes and dye wastewater by a developed bacterial consortium. Biodegradation 21(6):999–1015Google Scholar
  160. Saravanbahavan S, Thaikaivelan P, Raghava Rao J, Nair BU, Ramasami T (2004) Natural leathers from natural materials: progressing toward a new arena in leather processing. Environ Sci Technol 38(3):871–879Google Scholar
  161. Saxena G, Bharagava RN (2015) Persistent organic pollutants and bacterial communities present during the treatment of tannery wastewater. In: Chandra R (ed) Environmental waste management. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL, pp 217–247. doi: 10.1201/b19243-10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Saxena G, Bharagava RN, Kaithwas G, Raj A (2015) Microbial indicators, pathogens and methods for their monitoring in water environment. J Water Health 13:319–339. doi: 10.2166/wh.2014.275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Schilling K, Ulrike B, Helmut K, Zessner M (2012) Adapting the Austrian Edict on wastewater emissions for tanneries as consequence of foam formation on surface waters. Environ Sci Pollut 23:68–73Google Scholar
  164. Scholz W, Lucas M (2003) Techno-economic evaluation of membrane filtration for the recovery and reuse of tanning chemicals. Water Res 37(8):1859–1867Google Scholar
  165. Schrank SG, Bieling U, Jose HJ, Moreira RFPM, Schroder HFR (2009) Generation of endocrine disruptor compounds during ozone treatment of tannery wastewater confirmed by biological effect analysis and substance specific analysis. Water Sci Technol 59(1):31–38Google Scholar
  166. Schrank SG, Jose HJ, Moreira RFPM, Schroder HFR (2004) Elucidation of the behavior of tannery wastewater under advanced oxidation conditions. Chemosphere 56(5):411–423Google Scholar
  167. Schrank SG, Jose HJ, Moreira RFPM, Schroder HFR (2005) Applicability of Fenton and H2O2/UV reactions in the treatment of tannery wastewaters. Chemosphere 60(5):644–655Google Scholar
  168. Shakir L, Ejaz S, Ashraf M, Aziz QN, Ahmad AA, Iltaf I et al (2012) Ecotoxicological risks associated with tannery effluent wastewater. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 34(2):180–191Google Scholar
  169. Shakoori AR, Makhdoom M, Haq RU (2000) Hexavalent chromium reduction by a dichromate resistant gram-positive bacterium isolated from effluents of tanneries. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 53(3):348–351Google Scholar
  170. Shanker AK, Cervantes C, Loza-Tavera H, Avudainayagam S (2005) Chromium toxicity in plants. Environ Int 31(5):739–753Google Scholar
  171. Sharma S, Malaviya P (2013) Bioremediation of tannery wastewater by Aspergillus niger SPFSL2-a isolated from tannery sludge. Int J Basic Appl Sci 2(3):88–93Google Scholar
  172. Shegani G (2014) Treatment of tannery effluents by the process of coagulation. Int J Environ Ecolog Geolog Geophy Eng 8(4):233–237Google Scholar
  173. Singh M, Muller G, Singh IB (2003) Geographic distribution and base line concentration of heavy metals in sediments of Ganga River, India. J Geochem Explor 80:1–17Google Scholar
  174. Sinha S, Singh S, Mallick S (2008) Comparative growth response of two varieties of Vigna radiata L. (var. PDM 54 and var. NM 1) grown on different tannery sludge applications: effects of treated wastewater and ground water used for irrigation. Environ Geochem Health 30(22):407–422Google Scholar
  175. Siqueira IR, Vanzella C, Bianchetti P, Siqueira RMA, Stulp S (2011) Anxiety-like behavior in mice exposed to tannery wastewater: the effect of photo-electro-oxidation treatment. Neurotoxicol Teratol 33(4):481–484Google Scholar
  176. Sivaprakasam S, Mahadevan S, Sekar S, Rajakumar S (2008) Biological treatment of tannery wastewater by using salt-tolerant bacterial strains. Microb Cell Fact 7:15Google Scholar
  177. Song Z, Williams CJ, Edyvean GJ (2000) Sedimentation of tannery wastewater. Water Res 34(7):2171–2176Google Scholar
  178. Song Z, Williams CJ, Edyvean RGJ (2004) Treatment of tannery wastewater by chemical coagulation. Desalination 164(3):249–259Google Scholar
  179. Lesley Sounderraj SF, Lesley N, Senthilkumar P (2012) Studies on the effect of tannery effluent and chromium accumulation in common crop Tilapia mossambica. Int J Pharm Biol Arch 3(4):978–985Google Scholar
  180. Srinivasan SV, Mary GPS, Kalyanaraman C, Sureshkumar PS, Balakameswari KS, Suthanthararajan R, Ravindranath E (2012) Combined advanced oxidation and biological treatment of tannery effluent. Clean Technol Environ Policy 14(2):251–256Google Scholar
  181. Srivastava S, Thakur IS (2006) Isolation and process parameter optimization of Aspergillus sp. for removal of chromium from tannery effluent. Bioresour Technol 97:1167–1173Google Scholar
  182. Srivastava S, Ahmad AH, Thakur IS (2007) Removal of chromium and pentachlorophenol from tannery wastewaters. Bioresour Technol 98(5):1128–1132Google Scholar
  183. Stasinakis AS, Mamais D, Thomaidis NS, Lekkas TD (2002) Effect of chromium (VI) on bacterial kinetics of heterotrophic biomass of activated sludge. Water Res 36(13):3342–3350Google Scholar
  184. Stoller M, Sacco O, Sannin D, Chianese A (2013) Successful integration of membrane technologies in a conventional purification process of tannery wastewater streams. Membranes 3(3):126–135Google Scholar
  185. Stottmeister U, Wiener A, Kuschk P, Kappelmeyer U, Kastner M, Bederski O, Muller RA, Moormann H (2003) Effects of plants and microorganisms in constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Biotechnol Adv 22(1-2):93–117Google Scholar
  186. Suganthi KV, Mahalaksmi M, Balasubramanian N (2013) Development of hybrid membrane bioreactor for tannery effluent treatment. Desalination 309:231–236Google Scholar
  187. Sundarapandiyan S, Chandrasekar R, Ramanaiah B, Krishnan S, Saravanan P (2010) Electro-chemical oxidation and reuse of tannery saline wastewater. J Hazard Mater 180(1-3):197–203Google Scholar
  188. Szpyrkowicz L, Kaul SN, Neti Rao N, Satyanarayan S (2005) Influence of anode material on electrochemical oxidation for the treatment of tannery wastewater. Water Res 39(8):1601–1613Google Scholar
  189. Szpyrkowicz L, Kelsall GH, Kaoul SN, De Faveri M (2001) Performance of electrochemical reactor for treatment of tannery wastewaters. Chem Eng Sci 56(4):1579–1586Google Scholar
  190. Tadesse I, Green FB, Puhakka JA (2004) Seasonal and diurnal variations of temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen in advanced integrated wastewater pond system treating tannery effluent. Water Res 38(3):645–654Google Scholar
  191. Tahir SS, Naseem R (2007) Removal of Cr(III) from tannery wastewater by adsorption onto bentonite clay. Sep Purif Technol 53(3):312–321Google Scholar
  192. Tare V, Gupta S, Bose P (2003) Case studies on biological treatment of tannery wastewater in India. J Air Waste Manage Assoc 53(8):976–982Google Scholar
  193. Tewari CP, Shukla S, Pandey P (2011) Biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by consortium of Flavobacterium sp. in tannery effluent. J Environ Res Dev 7(2A):876–882Google Scholar
  194. Thanigavel M (2004) Biodegradation of tannery effluent in fluidized bed bioreactor with low density biomass support. M. Tech. Thesis. Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  195. Thanikaivelan P, Rao JR, Nair BU, Ramasami T (2005) Recent trends in leather making: processes, problems, and pathways. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 35(1):37–79Google Scholar
  196. Tigini V, Giansanti P, Mangiavillano A, Pannocchia A, Varese GC (2011) Evaluation of toxicity, genotoxicity and environmental risk of simulated textile and tannery wastewaters with a battery of biotests. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 74(4):866–8673Google Scholar
  197. Tripathi M, Vikram S, Jain RK, Garg SK (2011) Isolation and growth characteristics of chromium (VI) and pentachlorophenol tolerant bacterial isolate from treated tannery effluent for its possible use in simultaneous bioremediation. Indian J Microbiol 51(1):61–69Google Scholar
  198. Trujillo-Tapia N, Mondragon CC, Vasquez-Murrieta MS, Cleemput OV, Dendooven L (2008) Inorganic N dynamics and N2O production from tannery effluents irrigated soil under different water regimes and fertilizer application rates: a laboratory study. Appl Soil Ecol 38(3):279–288Google Scholar
  199. Tunay O, Kabdasli I, Orhon D, Ates E (1995) Characterization and pollution profile of leather tanning industry in Turkey. Water Sci Technol 32:1–9Google Scholar
  200. UK REACH (2009) Substances of very high concern. UK REACH Competent Authority Information. Leather No. 12Google Scholar
  201. UNIDO (2000) United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO): pollutants in tannery effluent, definitions and environmental impact, limits for discharge into water bodies and sewersGoogle Scholar
  202. UNIDO (2003) United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO): technical information on industrial processes, pollutants in tannery effluent. International scenario on environmental regulations and compliance. UNIDO, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  203. UNIDO (2010) United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO): future trends in the world leather and leather products industry and trade, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  204. USDHHS (2001) United States Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS): public health statement. In: Toxicological profile for pentachlorophenol. Prepared by Syracuse Research corporation, pp 1–11Google Scholar
  205. USEPA (1986) Guidelines for the health risk assessment of chemical mixtures (PDF) EPA/630/R-98/002Google Scholar
  206. Vankar PS, Bajpai D (2008) Phytoremdiation of chrome-VI of tannery effluent by Trichoderma species. Desalination 222(1-3):255–262Google Scholar
  207. Verma T, Maurya A (2013) Isolation of potential bacteria from tannery effluent capable to simultaneously tolerate hexavalent chromium and pentachlorophenol and its possible use in effluent bioremediation. Int J Eng Sci 2:64–69Google Scholar
  208. Verma T, Ramteke PW, Garg SK (2008) Quality assessment of treated tannery wastewater with special emphasis on pathogenic E. coli detection through serotyping. Environ Monit Assess 145(1-3):243–249Google Scholar
  209. Vidal G, Nieto J, Cooman K, Gajardo M, Bornhardt C (2004) Unhairing effects treated by an activated sludge system. J Hazard Mater 112(1-2):143–149Google Scholar
  210. Wang H, Wang Y, Zhou L (2011) Purification and recycling of tannery degreasing wastewater by ultrafiltration with polyimide membrane. International Conference on Remote Sensing, Environment and Transportation Engineering (RSETE), NanjingGoogle Scholar
  211. Wang K, Li W, Gong X, Li X, Liu W, He C, Wang Z, Minh QN, Chen C-L, Wang J-Y (2014) Biological pretreatment of tannery wastewater using a full-scale hydrolysis acidification system. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 95:41–45. doi: 10.1016/j.ibiod.2014.05.019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Wang YS, Pan ZY, Lang JM, Xu JM, Zheng YG (2007) Bioleaching of chromium from tannery sludge by indigenous, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. J Hazard Mater 147(1-2):319–334Google Scholar
  213. Ward DM, Weller R, Bateson MM (1990) 16S rRNA sequences reveal numerous uncultured microorganisms in a natural community. Nature 345(6270):63–65Google Scholar
  214. Xu X, Zhiping W (2011) Environmental cost analysis and upgrading research of synthetic leather industry. Energy Procedia 5:1341–1347Google Scholar
  215. Yoganand KS, Umapathy MJ (2013) Green methodology for the recovery of Cr(VI) from tannery effluent using newly synthesized quaternary ammonium salt. Arabian J Chem doi:  10.1016/J.arabjc.2013.02.022 (Article in press with corrected proof – Note to users).
  216. Yusuf RO, Noor ZZ, Abu Hassan MA, Agarry SE, Solomon BO (2013) A comparison of the efficacy of two strains of Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fragi in the treatment of tannery wastewater. Desalin Water Treat 51(16-18):3189–3195Google Scholar
  217. Zupancic GD, Jemec A (2010) Anaerobic digestion of tannery waste: semi-continuous and anaerobic sequencing batch reactor processes. Bioresour Technol 101(1):26–33Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gaurav Saxena
    • 1
  • Ram Chandra
    • 2
  • Ram Naresh Bharagava
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory for Bioremediation and Metagenomic Research (LBMR), Department of Environmental Microbiology (DEM), School for Environmental Sciences (SES)Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (A Central University)LucknowIndia
  2. 2.Environmental Microbiology Section, Environmental Toxicology Group, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (IITR)LucknowIndia

Personalised recommendations