Lead Toxicity, Antioxidant Defense and Environment

  • Alessia Carocci
  • Alessia Catalano
  • Graziantonio Lauria
  • Maria Stefania SinicropiEmail author
  • Giuseppe GenchiEmail author
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 238)


Environmental and occupational exposure to a large number of chemicals occurs at various stages throughout human life. Many of these are devoid of toxicity, but some could pose a significant health risk, i.e. the exposure to environmental xenobiotic metals as lead, mercury (Sinicropi et al. 2010a; Carocci et al. 2014), cadmium, etc. In particular, lead has long been a widespread public concern (Basha and Reddy 2010). Lead is one of the earliest heavy metals discovered by men. Due to its unique properties, as low melting point, softness, malleability, ductility, and resistance to corrosion, men have used lead for the last 5000 years in a wide range of applications.



The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support provided by Ministero dell’Istruzione, dell’Università e della Ricerca (MIUR, Italia).

Conflict of Interest The authors (AC, AC, GL, MSS, GG) declare no conflict of interest.


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Authors and Affiliations

  • Alessia Carocci
    • 1
  • Alessia Catalano
    • 1
  • Graziantonio Lauria
    • 2
  • Maria Stefania Sinicropi
    • 2
    Email author
  • Giuseppe Genchi
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Farmacia-Scienze del FarmacoUniversità degli Studi di Bari “A. Moro”BariItaly
  2. 2.Dipartimento di Farmacia e Scienze della Salute e della NutrizioneUniversità della CalabriaCosenzaItaly

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