pp 1-14 | Cite as


  • M. Axel WollmerEmail author
  • Michelle Magid
  • Tillmann H. C. Kruger
  • Eric Finzi
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series


A series of clinical studies have shown that botulinum toxin can treat major depression. Subjects suffering from unipolar depression may experience a quick, strong, and sustained improvement in the symptoms of depression after a single glabellar treatment with botulinum toxin.

Preliminary data suggest that botulinum toxin therapy may also be effective in the treatment of other mental disorders characterized by an excess of negative emotions, such as borderline personality disorder.

The mood-lifting effect of botulinum toxin therapy is probably mediated by the interruption of a proprioceptive feedback loop from the facial musculature to the emotional brain.


Embodiment Emotional proprioception Facial feedback hypothesis 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Axel Wollmer
    • 1
    Email author
  • Michelle Magid
    • 2
  • Tillmann H. C. Kruger
    • 3
  • Eric Finzi
    • 4
  1. 1.Asklepios Clinic North–Ochsenzoll, Asklepios Campus Hamburg, Medical Faculty, Semmelweis UniversityHamburgGermany
  2. 2.Dell Medical School, University of Texas at AustinAustinUSA
  3. 3.Department of Psychiatry, Social Psychiatry and PsychotherapyMedical School HannoverHannoverGermany
  4. 4.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesGeorge Washington School of MedicineWashingtonUSA

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