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Cystic Fibrosis, Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator and Drugs: Insights from Cellular Trafficking

  • Robert J. Bridges
  • Neil A. Bradbury
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 245)

Abstract

The eukaryotic cell is organized into membrane-delineated compartments that are characterized by specific cadres of proteins sustaining biochemically distinct cellular processes. The appropriate subcellular localization of proteins is key to proper organelle function and provides a physiological context for cellular processes. Disruption of normal trafficking pathways for proteins is seen in several genetic diseases, where a protein’s absence for a specific subcellular compartment leads to organelle disruption, and in the context of an individual, a disruption of normal physiology. Importantly, several drug therapies can also alter protein trafficking, causing unwanted side effects. Thus, a deeper understanding of trafficking pathways needs to be appreciated as novel therapeutic modalities are proposed. Despite the promising efficacy of novel therapeutic agents, the intracellular bioavailability of these compounds has proved to be a potential barrier, leading to failures in treatments for various diseases and disorders. While endocytosis of drug moieties provides an efficient means of getting material into cells, the subsequent release and endosomal escape of materials into the cytosol where they need to act has been a barrier. An understanding of cellular protein/lipid trafficking pathways has opened up strategies for increasing drug bioavailability. Approaches to enhance endosomal exit have greatly increased the cytosolic bioavailability of drugs and will provide a means of investigating previous drugs that may have been shelved due to their low cytosolic concentration.

Keywords

CFTR Endosomal exit Endosomes Expression Human disease Targeting Therapeutics Trafficking 

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© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physiology and BiophysicsChicago Medical SchoolNorth ChicagoUSA

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