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Genome-Wide Association Studies and Heritability Estimation in the Functional Genomics Era

  • Dunia Pino Del Carpio
  • Roberto Lozano
  • Marnin D. Wolfe
  • Jean-Luc Jannink
Chapter
Part of the Population Genomics book series (POGE)

Abstract

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are designed to detect the statistical association between genomic markers and phenotypic data in order to identify loci that control complex traits and more recently to quantify the relative amount of trait variance that arises from genetic sources. Moreover, many genomic resources have been generated and analytical tools developed to bring together information linking GWAS results to causal variants. This book chapter is an incredible effort to bring together information about current aspects of genome-wide studies and the concept of heritability. In the first section of this book chapter, we discuss the most critical concepts and experimental considerations in order to follow GWAS. In the later sections, we explore how researchers are trying to answer the question of whether using functional genomic data can improve the power of GWAS in complex phenotypes and if so far has led us to important biological insights. We review the core concept of heritability, its practical applications, and the classical (pre-genomics) methods for measurement, which largely remain relevant. Finally, we outline the genomic resources available for GWA studies. Also, based on what is available for humans, we identify what are the most critical resources that need to be developed for other species by contrasting the human genomic resources with resources being developed in plant and animal models.

Keywords

Data mining Functional genomics Genomics Genome-wide association study Heritability Meta-analysis Network Pathways Post-GWAS 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dunia Pino Del Carpio
    • 1
  • Roberto Lozano
    • 2
  • Marnin D. Wolfe
    • 3
  • Jean-Luc Jannink
    • 4
  1. 1.Agriculture Research DivisionAgriculture VictoriaMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Plant Breeding and GeneticsSchool for Integrative Plant Science, Cornell UniversityIthacaUSA
  3. 3.Section on Plant Breeding and GeneticsSchool of Integrative Plant Sciences, Cornell UniversityIthacaUSA
  4. 4.United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research ServiceR.W. Holley Center for Agriculture and HealthIthacaUSA

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