Licensing Services: Formal Analysis and Implementation

  • G. R. Gangadharan
  • Vincenzo D’Andrea
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4294)


The distribution of services spanning across organizational boundaries raises problems related to intellectual value that are less explored in service oriented research. Being a way to manage the rights between service consumers and service providers, licenses are critical to be considered in services. As the nature of services differs significantly from traditional software and components, services prevent the direct adoption of software and component licenses. We propose a formalisation of licensing clauses specific to services for unambiguous definition of a license. We extend Open Digital Rights Language to implement the clauses of service licensing, making a service license compatible with all the existing service standards.


  1. 1.
    Foster, I.: Service Oriented Science. Science 308, 814–817 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Szyperski, C.: Component Software: Beyond Object Oriented Programming. ACM Press, New York (1998)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    D’Andrea, V., Gangadharan, G.R.: Licensing Services: The Rising. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Web Services Based Systems and Applications (ICIW 2006), Guadeloupe, French Caribbean, pp. 142–147 (2006)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Papazoglou, M., Georgakopoulos, D.: Service Oriented Computing. Communications of the ACM 46(10), 25–28 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Heckel, R., Lohmann, M., Thone, S.: Towards a UML Profile for Service Oriented Architectures. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Model Driven Architecture: Foundations and Applications, MDAFA (2003)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hamadi, R., Benatallah, B.: A Petri Net-based Model for Web Services Composition. In: Proceedings of the Fourteenth Australasian Database Conference on Database Technologies, pp. 191–200 (2003)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Goldstein, P.: International Copyright Principles, Law, and Practice. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2001)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fitzgerald, B., Oi, I.: Free Culture: Cultivating the Creative Commons. Media and Arts Law Review (2004)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Keller, A., Ludwig, H.: The WSLA Framework: Specifying and Monitoring Service Level Agreements for Web Services. Journal of Network and Systems Management 11(1) (2003)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Skene, J., Lamanna, D., Emmerich, W.: Precise Service Level Agreements. In: Proc. of 26th Intl. Conference on Software Engineering, ICSE (2004)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tosic, V., Pagurek, B., Patel, K., Esfandiari, B., Ma, W.: Management Applications of the Web Service Offerings Language. In: Eder, J., Missikoff, M. (eds.) CAiSE 2003. LNCS, vol. 2681. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schlimmer, J. (ed.): Web Services Policy Framework, WS-Policy (2004),
  13. 13.
    World Intellectual Property Organization: WIPO Copyright Treaty (WCT) (1996),
  14. 14.
    Rosenblatt, B., Trippe, B., Mooney, S.: Digital Rights Management: Business and Technology. M & T Publishers, New York (2002)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gunter, C., Weeks, S., Wright, A.: Models and Languages for Digital Rights. In: Proceedings of the HICSS-34 (2001)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pucella, R., Weissman, V.: A Logic for Reasoning about Digital Rights. In: IEEE Proceedings of the Computer Security Foundations Workshop (2002)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chong, C., Corin, R., Etalle, S., Hartel, P., Law, Y.: LicenseScript: A Novel Digital Rights Language. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop for Technology, Economy, Social and Legal Aspects of Virtual Goods (2003)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    D’Andrea, V., Gangadharan, G.R.: Licensing Services: An ”Open” Perspective. In: Open Source Systems (IFIP Working Group 2.13 Foundation Conference on Open Source Software), vol. 203, pp. 143–154. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Weyuker, E.: Evaluating Software Complexity Measures. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering 14(9), 1357–1365 (1988)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    D’Andrea, V., Fikouras, I., Aiello, M.: Interface Inheritance for Object Oriented Service Composition Based on Model Driven Configuration. In: Proceedings of ICSOC (Short Papers), pp. 66–74 (2004)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Alonso, G., Casati, F., Kuno, H., Machiraju, V.: Web Services Concepts, Architectures, and Applications. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    World Intellectual Property Organization: Successful Technology Licensing. WIPO Publishers, Geneva, Switzerland (2004)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    ContentGuard Inc.: XrML: The Digital Rights Language for Trusted Contents and Services, (accessed on May 2006)
  24. 24.
    Iannella, R. (ed.): Open Digital Rights Language (ODRL) Version 1.1 (2002),
  25. 25.
    Ianella, R. (ed.): ODRL Creative Commons Profile (2005),

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. R. Gangadharan
    • 1
  • Vincenzo D’Andrea
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Information and Communication TechnologyUniversity of TrentoTrentoItaly

Personalised recommendations