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Label-Free Monitoring of 3D Tissue Models via Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy

  • Frank AlexanderJr.Email author
  • Sebastian Eggert
  • Dorielle Price
Part of the Bioanalytical Reviews book series


There is a strong tendency in in vitro testing of drugs or toxins to use 3D tissue models as biological test objects rather than 2D cell monolayers. The latter have been used with increasing success throughout the last decades even though their limitations were well-known. Two-dimensional cell layers cannot fully mimic the complex architecture of real tissue mainly because cell-cell interactions, cell communication, cell signaling, extracellular matrix composition, and all the physicochemical properties of the microenvironment are quite different. Motivated by these shortcoming, 3D tissue models have been developed over the years capable of overcoming some of the limitations of 2D tissue. However, for successful screening campaigns and toxicology assessment, it is not sufficient to only have an appropriate tissue model, and it also takes analytical techniques to read the biological response to a given exposure to drugs or toxins. It has been notoriously difficult to find experimental approaches that are capable of reporting from the inside of a 3D tissue model without destroying it. Because of its noninvasive nature and the ability of AC currents to permeate through tissue, impedance analysis has emerged as one potential technique to fill this gap. The current chapter will summarize the state of the art in impedance-based monitoring of 3D tissue models with particular focus on electrode design and the constraints that are associated with it.


Drug screening Impedance analysis Label-free Multi-electrode arrays Spheroids Tissue engineering Tissue models 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frank AlexanderJr.
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sebastian Eggert
    • 2
  • Dorielle Price
    • 3
  1. 1.The Geneva FoundationRockvilleUSA
  2. 2.Technische Universität MünchenMünchenGermany
  3. 3.University of South FloridaTampaUSA

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