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Genomics of Alkaliphiles

  • Pedro H. Lebre
  • Don A. CowanEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology book series (ABE, volume 172)

Abstract

Alkalinicity presents a challenge for life due to a “reversed” proton gradient that is unfavourable to many bioenergetic processes across the membranes of microorganisms. Despite this, many bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, collectively termed alkaliphiles, are adapted to life in alkaline ecosystems and are of great scientific and biotechnological interest due to their niche specialization and ability to produce highly stable enzymes. Advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have propelled not only the genomic characterization of many alkaliphilic microorganisms that have been isolated from nature alkaline sources but also our understanding of the functional relationships between different taxa in microbial communities living in these ecosystems. In this review, we discuss the genetics and molecular biology of alkaliphiles from an “omics” point of view, focusing on how metagenomics and transcriptomics have contributed to our understanding of these extremophiles.

Graphical Abstract

Keywords

Alkaliphiles Bioenergetics Genomics Metabolic potential Metagenomics 

Abbreviations

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

CDS

Coding sequence

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

FAD

Flavin adenine dinucleotide

JGI

Joint Genome Institute

KOGs

Eukaryotic Orthologous Groups

Mb

Mega base pairs

mV

Millivolts

NAD(P)H

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced form)

NADH

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced form)

pI

Isoelectric point

PMF

Proton motive force

PP

Pentose phosphate

SMF

Sodium motive force

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank the University of Pretoria and the National Research Foundation of South Africa for financial support.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Microbial Ecology and Genomics, Department of Biochemistry, Genetics and MicrobiologyUniversity of PretoriaPretoriaSouth Africa

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