History of Computing in Education

An Overview
  • John A. N. Lee
Conference paper
Part of the IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology book series (IFIPAICT, volume 145)


This paper provides an overview of the history of computing and its affect on computing in education. It describes the evolution of the history of computing through activities such as conferences, collection and archival activities, individual collections, books and journals, and websites. It also illustrates the use of computers in the history of education in areas such as computing education, engineering, home and office, and the classroom. The paper brings light the importance of history in fulfilling the legacy of different areas of learning.

Key words

History of computing Computing education History Education Organizations Museums Virtual museums 


  1. ACMB, 2004, American Computer Museum, Bozeman, Montana., undated, last accessed 14 April 2004.
  2. AUCHM, 2004, American University Computing History Museum. http://www.computinghistory, undated, last accessed 14 April 2004.Google Scholar
  3. Aspray, William, 1990, Computing Before Computers. Iowa State University Press, 1990.Google Scholar
  4. Babbage, Charles. 1961, On the Principles and Development of the Calculator and Other Seminal Writings by Charles Babbage and Others. Dover Publications, 1961.Google Scholar
  5. Bashe, Charles J., Lyle R. Johnson, John H. Palmer, and Emerson W. Pugh, 1968, IBM’s Early Computers. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT PressGoogle Scholar
  6. Baum, Claude, 1981, The System Builders: The Story of SDC. Santa Monica, CA: System Development Corporation.Google Scholar
  7. Bergin, Thomas J., Gibson, Richard (eds.), 1996, History Of Programming Languages. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  8. Campbell-Kelly, Martin and William Aspray, 1996, Computer: A History of the Information Machine. New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  9. Campbell-Kelly, Martin, Mary Croarken, Raymond Flood, Eleanor Robson, 2003, The History of Mathematical Tables: From Sumer to Spreadsheets. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  10. Campbell-Kelly, Martin, 2003, From Airline Reservations to Sonic the Hedgehog: A History of the Software Industry. Cambridge, MA.: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  11. CBI, Charles Babbage Institute, 2004,, undated, last accessed 14 April 2004.
  12. Ceruzzi, Paul E., 1998, A History of Modern Computing. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  13. Ceruzzi, Paul E., 1983, Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935–1945. Westport.CT: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  14. Chapuis, Robert J. and Amos E. Joel, Jr., 1990, Electronics, Computers and Telephone Switching, Part III. Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  15. CMQ, 2004, Computer Museum at the University of Queensland., undated, last accessed 14 April 2004.
  16. Cohen, I. Bernard, and Gregory W. Welch, 1999, Makin’ Numbers: Howard Aiken and the Computer. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cohen, I. Bernard, 1999, Howard Aiken: Portrait of a Computer Pioneer. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. CHAC, 2004, Computer History Association of California,, undated, last accessed 14 April 2004.
  19. CHM, 2004, Computer History Museum,, undated, last accessed 14 April 2004.
  20. CMB, 2004, Computer Museum at Bletchley Park., undated, last accessed 14 April 2004.
  21. DeLamarter, Richard Thomas, 1986, Big Blue: IBM’s Use and Abuse of Power, New York: Dodd, Mead.Google Scholar
  22. DBCM, 2004, DigiBarn Computer Museum,, undated, last accessed 14 April 2004.
  23. Englebourg, Saul, 1976, International Business Machines: A Business History. New York: Arno Press. Orig. pub. as a Ph.D. thesis, Columbia University, 1954.Google Scholar
  24. Fisher, Franklin M., James W. McKie, and Richard B. Mancke, 1983, IBM and the U. S. Data Processing Industry: An Economic History. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  25. Fishman, Katherine Davis, 1981, The Computer Establishment. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  26. Forman, Richard L., 1985, Fulfilling the Computer’s Promise: The History of Informatics, 1962–1968. Woodland Hills, California.: InformaticsGoogle Scholar
  27. Freiberger, Paul and Michael Swaine, 2000, Fire in the Valley: The Making of the Personal Computer, second edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  28. Hall, Eldon C., 1996, Journey to the Moon: The History of the Apollo Guidance Computer. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.Google Scholar
  29. HNM, undated, Heinz Nixdorf Museums Forum.
  30. Hodges, Andrew, 1983, Alan Turing: The Enigma. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  31. Ifrah, George, 1999, The Universal History of Numbers: From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer. New York: John Wiley & Sons.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  32. Ifrah, George, 2001, The Universal History of Computing: From the Abacus to the Quantum Computer. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  33. Imlay, John P., Jr. with Dennis Hamilton, 1994, Jungle Rules: How to be a Tiger in Business. New York, NY: Dutton.Google Scholar
  34. Kestin, Hesh, 1992, 21st Century Management: The Revolutionary Strategies that Have Made Computer Associates a Multi-Billion Dollar Software Giant. New York, NY: The Atlantic Monthly Press.Google Scholar
  35. Krauss, Michael, 1999, Simulating Real World Environments,
  36. Kurtzig, Sandra L. with Tom Parker, 1991, CEO: Building a $400 Million Dollar Company from the Ground Up. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  37. Lammers, Susan, 1986, Programmers at Work: Interviews with 19 Programmers Who Shaped the Computer Industry. Washington, D.C.: Tempus, Redmond.Google Scholar
  38. Lee, John A.N, 1995, Computer Pioneers. Los Alamitos CA: IEEE Computer Society Press.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  39. Levering, Robert, Michael Katz, and Milton Moskowitz, 1984, The Computer Entrepreneurs. New York: New American Library.Google Scholar
  40. Levy, Steven, 1984, Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution. Norwell, MA: Anchor Press.Google Scholar
  41. Manes, Stephen and Paul Andrews, 1993, Gates: How Microsoft’s Mogul Reinvented an Industry — and Made Himself the Richest Man in America. New York, NY: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  42. MathEmp, Math Emporium, 2004,, undated, last accessed 14 April 2004.
  43. Maurice V. Wilkes, 1995, Memoirs of a Computer Pioneer. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  44. McCartney, Scott, 1999, ENIAC: The Triumphs and Tragedies of the World’s First Computer. New York, NY: Walker Publishing.Google Scholar
  45. Metropolis, Nicholas, J. Howlett, and Gian-Carlo Rota, eds., 1980, ’A History of Computing in the Twentieth Century, New York: Academic Press.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  46. Nova, 2004, NovaNET Learning., undated, last accessed 14 April 2004.
  47. Nyce, James M. and Paul Kahn, 1991, From Memex to Hypertext: Vannevar Bush and the Mind’s Machine. New York, NY: Academic Press.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  48. Pew Internet Project, December 22, 2003, America’s Online Pursuits: The changing picture of who’s online and what they do.
  49. Phister Jr., Montgomery. 1979. Data Processing: Technology and Economics. Santa Monica, Calif.: Digital Press and Santa Monica Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  50. Pugh, Emerson W., 1995, Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and Its Technology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  51. Riordan, Michael and Lillian Hoddeson, 1997, Crystal Fire: The Birth of the Information Age. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  52. Rojas, Rual, Ulf Hashagen (eds.), 2002, The First Computers—History and Architectures. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  53. Sammet, Jean E., 1969, Programming Languages: History and Fundamentals. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  54. Sammet, Jean E., 1985, Answers to Self-Study Questions. Annals of the History of Computing, Vol. 7, No. 4, p. 361.Google Scholar
  55. SML, 2004, Science Museum London., undated, last accessed 14 April 2004.
  56. Sobel, Robert, 1981, IBM: Colossus in Transition. New York: Times Books.Google Scholar
  57. Stanford, undated, Stanford University, Gates Computer Science Building.
  58. U. S. Department of Commerce, 1984, A Competitive Assessment of the United States Software Industry. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce.Google Scholar
  59. VMC, 2004, Virtual Museum of Computing,, undated, last accessed 14 April 2004.
  60. WebCT, 2004,, undated, last accessed 14 April 2004.
  61. Wexelblat, R. L., 1981, History of Programming Languages. New York, London: Academic Press.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  62. Williams, M.R., 1997, A History of Computing Technology, Second Edition. Los Alamitos CA: IEEE Computer Society Press.Google Scholar
  63. Wolffe, Gregory S., William Yurcik, Hugh Osborne, and Mark A. Holliday, 2002, Teaching computer organization/architecture with limited resources using simulators. Proceedings of the 33rd SIGCSE Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education, Cincinnati, Kentucky, pp. 176–180Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • John A. N. Lee
    • 1
  1. 1.Virginia Tech and Radford UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations