7.3 Conclusions

After the March 2004 attacks in Madrid, there can be no doubt that European cities are as likely to be targeted by terrorist activities as their US counterparts. The drafters of the EU constitutional treaty have thus rightly foreseen a solidarity clause providing mutual assistance for EU member states in case of terrorist activities. So far, however, ongoing discussions about improving Europe’s security capabilities have focused primarily on expeditionary tasks while neglecting the provision of homeland security. To overcome this problem, the capabilities of First Responders must receive substantial reinforcement. Here the corporate sector can play a useful role. However, the most substantial reform effort will have to be undertaken by the community of First Responders themselves. By adopting a capabilities-based planning approach, First Responders should jointly identify their capabilities at the international and national levels and set up a capability development mechanism. These actions will help coordinate research, procurement, and training. In doing so, First Responders will be able to assume the much needed role of a credible and capable player to complement NATO’s security and defense policy.


Homeland Security Disaster Preparedness National Guard Surge Capacity Emergency Responder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer 2005

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