Survival and Transport of Enteric Viruses in the Environment

  • Albert Bosch
  • Rosa M. Pintó
  • F. Xavier Abad
Part of the Food Microbiology and Food Safety book series (FMFS)


Sewage Sludge Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Enteric Virus Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Virus Persistence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

4.0. References

  1. Abad, F. X., Pinto, R. M., and Bosch, A., 1994, Survival of enteric viruses on environmental fomites. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:3704–3710.Google Scholar
  2. Abad, F. X., Pintó, R. M., Villena, C., Gajardo, R., and Bosch, A., 1997, Astrovirus survival in drinking water. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:3119–3122.Google Scholar
  3. Abad, F. X., Villena, C., Guix, S., Caballero, S., Pinto, R. M., and Bosch, A., 2001, Potential role of fomites in the vehicular transmission of human astroviruses. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:3904–3907.Google Scholar
  4. Akers, T. G., and Hatch, M. T., 1968, Survival of a picornavirus and its infectious ribonucleic acid after aerosolization. Appl. Microbiol. 16:1811–1813.Google Scholar
  5. Akin, E. W., Benton, W. H., and Hill, J. W. Jr., 1971, Enteric viruses in ground and surface waters: a review of their occurrence and survival, in: Virus and Water Quality: Occurrence and Control (V. Griffin and J. Snoeyink, eds.), University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL, pp. 59–74.Google Scholar
  6. Alvarez, A., Buttner, M. P., and Stetzenbach, L., 1995, PCR for bioaerosol monitoring: sensitivity and environmental interference. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61: 3639–3644.Google Scholar
  7. American Public Health Association, 1998, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 20th ed., American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  8. Amvrosieva, T. V., Titov, L. P., Mulders, M., Hovi, T., Dyakonova, O. V., Votyakov, V. I., Kvacheva, Z. B., Eremin, V. F., Sharko, R. M., Orlova, S.V., Kazinets, O. N., and Bogush, Z. F., 2001, Viral water contamination as the cause of aseptic meningitis outbreak in Belarus. Cent. Eur. J. Publ. Health 9:154–157.Google Scholar
  9. Andersson, Y., and Stenström, G., 1987, Waterborne outbreaks in Sweden: causes and etiology. Water Sci. Technol. 19:575–580.Google Scholar
  10. Ansari, S. A., Sattar, S. A., Springthorpe, V. S., Wells, G. A., and Tostowaryk, W., 1988, Rotavirus survival on human hands and transfer of infectious virus to animate and nonporous inanimate surfaces. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26:1513–1518.Google Scholar
  11. Appleton, H., and Pereira, M. S., 1977, A possible virus aetiology in outbreaks of food poisoning from cockles. Lancet 1:780–781.Google Scholar
  12. Badawy, A. S., Rose, J. B., and Gerba, C. P., 1990, Comparative survival of enteric viruses and coliphage on sewage irrigated grass. J. Environ. Sci. Health 25: 937–952.Google Scholar
  13. Banks, M., Bendall, R., Grierson, S., Heath, G., Mitchell, J., and Dalton, H., 2004, Human and porcine hepatitis E virus strains, United Kingdom. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:953–955.Google Scholar
  14. Benbough, J. E., 1969, The effect of relative humidity on the survival of airborne Semliki forest virus. J. Gen. Virol. 4:473–437.Google Scholar
  15. Beuret, C., Kohler, D., and Lüthi, T. M., 2000, Norwalk-like virus sequences detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in mineral waters imported into or bottled in Switzerland. J. Food Prot. 63:1576–1582.Google Scholar
  16. Beuret, C., Kohler, D., Baumgartner, A., and Lüthi, T. M., 2002, Norwalk-like virus sequences in mineral waters: one-year monitoring of three brands. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:1925–1931.Google Scholar
  17. Bidawid, S., Farber, J. M., and Sattar, S. A., 2001, Survival of hepatitis A virus on modified atmosphere-packaged (MAP) lettuce. Food Microbiol. 18:95–102.Google Scholar
  18. Birch, C., and Gust, I., 1989, Sewage pollution of marine waters: the risks of viral infection. Med. J. Aust. 151:609–610.Google Scholar
  19. Bitton, G., 1980, Introduction to Environmental Virology, John Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  20. Bitton, G., and Gerba, C. P., 1984, Groundwater pollution microbiology: the emerging issues, in Groundwater Pollution Microbiology (G. Bitton and C.P. Gerba, eds.), John Wiley & Sons, New York. pp. 1–8.Google Scholar
  21. Bitton, G, Fraxedas, R., and Gifford, G. E., 1979, Effect of solar radiation on poliovirus: preliminary experiments. Water Res. 13:225–228.Google Scholar
  22. Blacklow, N. R., and Cukor, G., 1982, Norwalk virus: a major cause of epidemic gastroenteritis. Am. J. Public. Health. 72:1321–1323.Google Scholar
  23. Block, J. C., 1983, Viruses in environmental waters, in: Viral Pollution of the Environment (G. Berg, ed.), CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, pp. 117–145.Google Scholar
  24. Bosch, A., 1995, The survival of enteric viruses in the water environment. Microbiologia SEM 11:393–396.Google Scholar
  25. Bosch, A., and Pintó, R. M., 1992, Human enteric viruses in the environment, in: Environmental Protection, Vol. 3 (A.Z. Keller and H.C. Wilson, eds.), University of Bradford Press, Bradford, UK, pp 63–71.Google Scholar
  26. Bosch, A., Lucena, F., Girones, R., and Jofre, J., 1986, Survey of viral pollution in Besos River. J.Water Pollut. Control Fed. 58:87–91.Google Scholar
  27. Bosch, A., Lucena, F., Girones, R., and Jofre, J., 1988a, Occurrence of enterovirus on marine sediment along the coast of Barcelona (Spain). Can. J. Microbiol. 34:921–924.Google Scholar
  28. Bosch, A., Pintó, R. M., Blanch, A. R., and Jofre, J., 1988b, Detection of human rotavirus in sewage through two concentration procedures. Water Res. 22:343–348.Google Scholar
  29. Bosch, A., Pintó, R. M., and Jofre, J., 1988c, Non-seasonal distribution of rotavirus in Barcelona raw sewage. Zbl. Bakt. Hyg. B 186:273–277.Google Scholar
  30. Bosch, A., Lucena, F., Diez, J. M., Gajardo, R., Blasi, M., and Jofre, J., 1991, Waterborne viruses associated with a hepatitis outbreak. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 83:80–83.Google Scholar
  31. Bosch, A., Gray, M., Diez, J. M., Gajardo, R., Abad, F. X., Pintó, R. M., and Sobsey, M. D., 1993, The survival of human enteric viruses in seawater. MAP Tech. Rep. Ser. 76:1–7.Google Scholar
  32. Bosch, A., Sánchez, G., Le Guyader, F., Vanaclocha, H., Haugarreau, L., and Pintó, R. M., 2001, Human enteric viruses in coquina clams associated with a large hepatitis A outbreak. Water Sci. Tech. 43:61–66.Google Scholar
  33. Bryan, J. A., Lehmann, J. D., Setiady, T. F., and Hatch, M. H., 1974, An outbreak of hepatitis A associated with recreational lake water. Am. J. Epidemiol. 99:145–154.Google Scholar
  34. Butz, A. M., Fosarelli, P., Dick, J., Cusack, T., and Yolken, R., 1993, Prevalence of rotavirus on high-risk fomites in day-care facilities. Pediatrics 92:202–205.Google Scholar
  35. Caballero, S., Abad, F. X., Loisy, F., Le Guyader, F. S., Cohen, J., Pintó, R. M., and Bosch, A., 2004, Rotavirus virus-like particles as surrogates in environmental persistence and inactivation studies. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:3904–3909.Google Scholar
  36. Cabelli, V., 1983, Public health and water quality significance of viral diseases transmitted by drinking water and recreational water. Water Sci. Technol. 15:1–15.Google Scholar
  37. Cabelli, V. J., Dufour, A. P., McCabe, L. J., and Levin, M. A., 1982, Swimming-associated gastroenteritis and water quality. Am. J. Epidemiol. 115:606–616.Google Scholar
  38. Carrington, E. G., Davis, R. D., and Pike, E. B., 1998a, Review of the scientific evidence relating to the controls on the agricultural use of sewage sludge. Part 1-the evidence underlying the 1989 Department of the Environment code of practice for agricultural use of sludge and the sludge (use in agriculture) regulations. WRC report no. DETR 4415/3. WRC Medmenham, Marlow, UK, p. 38.Google Scholar
  39. Carrington, E. G., Davis, R. D., and Pike, E. B., 1998b, Review of the scientific evidence relating to the controls on the agricultural use of sewage sludge. Part 1-evidence since 1989 relevant to controls on the agricultural use of sewage sludge. WRC report no. DETR 4415/3. WRC Medmenham, Marlow, UK, pp. 41–42.Google Scholar
  40. Caul, E. O., 1994, Small round structured viruses: airborne transmission and hospital control. Lancet 343:1240–1242.Google Scholar
  41. Chadwick, P. R., and McCann, R., 1994, Transmission of a small round structured virus by vomiting during a hospital outbreak of gastroenteritis. J. Hosp. Infect. 26: 251–259.Google Scholar
  42. Cheesbrough, J. S., Barkess-Jones, L., and Brown, D.W., 1997, Possible prolonged environmental survival of small round structured viruses. J. Hosp. Infect. 35:325–326.Google Scholar
  43. Christensen, B. F., Lees, D., Wood, K. H., Bjergskov, T., and Green, J., 1998, Human enteric viruses in oysters causing a large outbreak of human food borne infection in 1996/97. J. Shellfish Res. 17:1633–1635.Google Scholar
  44. Cliver, D. O., 1984, Significance of water and the environment in the transmission of virus disease. Monogr. Virol. 15:30–42.Google Scholar
  45. Cliver, D. O., and Kostenbader, K. D., Jr., 1979, Antiviral effectiveness of grape juice. J. Food Prot. 42:100–104.Google Scholar
  46. Cliver, D. O., and Riemann, H. P., 1999, Foodborne Diseases, 2nd ed., Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  47. Cliver, D. O., Kostenbader, K. D., Jr., and Vallenas, M. R., 1970, Stability of viruses in low moisture foods. J. Milk Food Tech. 33:484–491.Google Scholar
  48. Craun, G. F., 1988, Surface water supplies and health. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 80:40–52.Google Scholar
  49. Craun, G. F., Nwachuku, N., Calderon, R. L., and Craun, M. F., 2002, Outbreaks in drinking-water systems, 1991–1998. J. Environ. Health 65:16–25.Google Scholar
  50. Croci, L., De Medici, D., Scaslfaro, C., Fiore, A., and Toti, L., 2002, The survival of hepatitis A virus in fresh produce. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 73:29–34.Google Scholar
  51. D’Angelo, L. H., Hierholzer, J. C., Keenlyside, R. A., Anderson, L. J., and Mortone, W. J., 1979, Pharyngoconjunctival fever caused by adenovirus type 4: report of a swimming pool related outbreak with recovery of virus from pool water. J. Infect. Dis. 140:42–47.Google Scholar
  52. De Flora, S., De Renzi, G., and Badolati, G., 1975, Detection of animal viruses in coastal seawater and sediments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 30:472–475.Google Scholar
  53. Deng, M. Y., and Cliver, D. O., 1995, Persistence of inoculated hepatitis A virus in mixed human and animal wastes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:87–91.Google Scholar
  54. Denis, F. A., Dupwis, T., Denis, N. A., and Brisou, J. L., 1977, Survie dans l’eau de mer de 20 souches de virus a ADN et ARN. J. Fr. Hydrol. 8:25–36.Google Scholar
  55. Dimmock, N. L., 1967, Differences between the thermal inactivation of picornaviruses at high and low temperatures. Virology 31:338–353.Google Scholar
  56. Divizia, M., De Filippis, P., Di Napoli, A., Venuti, A., Peres, B., and Pana, A., 1989a, Isolation of wild type hepatitis A virus from the environment. Water Res. 23:1155–1160.Google Scholar
  57. Divizia, M., Santi, A. L., and Pana, A., 1989b, Ultrafiltration: an efficient second step for hepatitis A virus and poliovirus concentration. J. Virol. Methods 23:55–62.Google Scholar
  58. Donaldson, A. I., and Ferris, N. P., 1976, The survival of some airborne animal viruses in relation to relative humidity. Vet. Microbiol. 1:413–420.Google Scholar
  59. Doultree, J. C., Druce, J. D., Birch, C. J., Bowden, D. S., and Marshall, J. A., 1999, Inactivation of feline calicivirus, a Norwalk virus surrogate. J. Hosp. Infect. 41:51–57.Google Scholar
  60. Elazhary, M. A., and Derbyshire, J. B., 1979, Effect of temperature, relative humidity and medium on the aerosol stability of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus. Can. J. Comp. Med. 43:158–167.Google Scholar
  61. Enright, J. R., 1954, The epidemiology of paralytic poliomyelitis in Hawaii. Hawaii Med. J. 13:350–354.Google Scholar
  62. Environmental Protection Agency, 1984, USEPA Manual Methods for Virology, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research and Development, 600/4-84-013. USEPA, Cincinnati, OH.Google Scholar
  63. Fannin, K. F., Vana, S. T., and Jakubowski, W., 1985, Effect of activated sludge wastewater treatment plant on ambient air densities of aerosols containing bacteria and viruses. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 49:1191–1196.Google Scholar
  64. Farrah, S. R., Gerba, C. P., Wallis, C., and Melnick, J. L., 1976, Concentration of viruses from large volumes of tap water using pleated membrane filters. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 31:221–226.Google Scholar
  65. Farrah, S. R., Goyal, S. M., Gerba, C. P., Conklin, R. H., and Smith, E. M., 1978, Comparison between adsortion of poliovirus and rotavirus by aluminum hydroxide and activated sludge flocs. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 35:360–363.Google Scholar
  66. Farthing, M. J. G., 1989, Viruses and the Gut, Smith Kline & French, Garden City, UK.Google Scholar
  67. Fattal, B., and Shuval, H. I., 1989, Epidemiological research on the relationship between microbial quality of coastal seawater and rotavirus induced gastroenteritis among bathers on the Mediterranean Israeli beaches. Research project no. ICP-CEH-039-ISR-16 (D). WHO, Athens, pp. 1–25.Google Scholar
  68. Fattal, B., Vasl, R. J., Katzenelson, E., and Shuval, H. I., 1983, Survival of bacterial indicator organisms and enteric viruses in the Mediterranean coastal waters of Tel-Aviv. Water Res. 17:397–402.Google Scholar
  69. Fattal, B., Margalith, M., Shuval, H. I., Wax, Y., and Morag, A., 1987, Viral antibodies in agricultural populations exposed to aerosols from wastewater irrigation during a viral disease outbreak. Am. J. Epidemiol. 125:899–906.Google Scholar
  70. Filippi, J. A., and Banwart, G. J., 1974, Effect of the fat content of ground beef on the heat inactivation of poliovirus. J. Food Sci. 39:865–868.Google Scholar
  71. Finance, C., Brigaud, M., Lucena, F., Aymard, M., Bosch, A., and Schwartzbrod, L., 1982, Viral pollution of seawater at Barcelona. Zbl. Bakteriol. Mikrobiol. Hyg. B 176:530–536.Google Scholar
  72. Foy, H. M., Cooney, M. K., and Halten, J. B., 1968, Adenovirus type 3 epidemic associated with intermittent chlorination of a swimming pool. Arch. Environ. Health 17:795–802.Google Scholar
  73. Fujioka, R. S., Loh, P. C., and Lau, L. S., 1980, Survival of human enteroviruses in the Hawaiian Ocean environment: evidence for virus inactivating microorganisms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 39:1105–1110.Google Scholar
  74. Gajardo, R., Díez, J. M., Jofre, J., and Bosch, A., 1991, Adsorption-elution with negatively and positively-charged glass powder for the concentration of hepatitis A virus from water. J. Virol. Methods 31:345–352.Google Scholar
  75. Gajardo, R., Bouchriti, N., Pintó, R. M., and Bosch, A., 1995, Genotyping of rotaviruses isolated from sewage. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:3460–3462.Google Scholar
  76. Gassilloud, B., Schwartzbrod, L., and Gantzer, B., 2003, Presence of viral genomes in mineral water: a sufficient condition to assume infectious risk? Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:3965–3969.Google Scholar
  77. Gerba, C. P., and Schaiberger, G. E., 1975, Effect of particulates on virus survival in seawater, J. Water Pollut. Cont. Fed. 47:93–103.Google Scholar
  78. Gerba, C. P., and Goyal, S. M., eds., 1982, Methods in Environmental Virology. Marcel Decker, New York.Google Scholar
  79. Gerba, C. P., Smith, E. M., and Melnick, J. L., 1977, Development of a quantitative method for detecting enteroviruses in estuarine sediments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 34:158–163.Google Scholar
  80. Gerba, C. P., Goyal, S. M., Cech, I., and Bogdan, G. F., 1981, Quantitative assessment of the adsorptive behavior of viruses to soils. Environ. Sci. Technol. 15:940–944.Google Scholar
  81. Gilgen, M., Germann, D., Lüthy, J., and Hübner, P., 1997, Three-step isolation method for sensitive detection of enterovirus, rotavirus, hepatitis A virus, and small round structured viruses in water samples. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 37:189–199.Google Scholar
  82. Gill, O. N., Cubitt, W.D., McWiggan, D. A., Watney, B. M., and Bartlett, C. L. R., 1983, Epidemic of gastroenteritis caused by oysters contaminated with small round structured viruses. Br. Med. J. 287:1532–1534.Google Scholar
  83. Gironés, R., Jofre, J., and Bosch, A., 1989, Natural inactivation of enteric viruses in seawater. J. Environ. Qual. 18:34–39.Google Scholar
  84. Gironés, R., Jofre, J., and Bosch, A., 1990, Isolation of marine bacteria with antiviral properties. Can. J. Microbiol. 35:1015–1021.Google Scholar
  85. Goh, K. T., Chan, L., Ding, J. L., and Oon C. J., 1984, An epidemic of cockles associated hepatitis A in Singapore. WHO Bull. 62:893–897.Google Scholar
  86. Goyal, S. M., and Gerba, C. P., 1979, Comparative adsorption of human enteroviruses, simian rotavirus, and selected bacteriophages to soils. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 38:241–247.Google Scholar
  87. Goyal, S. M., and Gerba, C. P., 1983, Viradel method for detection of rotavirus from seawater. J. Virol. Methods 7:279–285.Google Scholar
  88. Goyal, S. M., Gerba, C. P., and Melnick, J. L., 1979, Human enteroviruses in oysters and their overlaying waters. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 37:572–581.Google Scholar
  89. Grabow, W.O. K., Puttergill, D. L., and Bosch, A., 1993, Detection of adenovirus types 40 and 41 by means of the PLC/PRF/5 human liver cell line. Water Sci. Tech. 27:321–327.Google Scholar
  90. Grausgruber, W., 1963, Investigations of the inactivation of infectious swine paralysis virus in scalded sausages. Wiener Tierärztliche Monatsschrift 50:678–685.Google Scholar
  91. Gray, M., De León, R., Tepper, B. E., and Sobsey, M. D., 1993, Survival of hepatitis A virus (HAV), poliovirus and F-specific coliphages in disposable and landfill leachates. Water Sci. Technol. 27:429–432.Google Scholar
  92. Green, J., Wright, P. A., Gallimore, C. I., Mitchell, O., Morgan-Capner, P., and Brown, D.W. G., 1998, The role of environmental contamination with small round structured viruses in a hospital outbreak investigated by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay. J. Hosp. Infect. 39:39–45.Google Scholar
  93. Guix, S., Caballero, S., Villena, C., Bartolomé, R., Latorre, C., Rabella, N., Simó, M., Bosch, A., and Pintó, R. M., 2002, Molecular epidemiology of astrovirus infection in Barcelona, Spain. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:133–139.Google Scholar
  94. Gunderson, K., Brandberg, A., Magnusson, S., and Lycke, E., 1968, Characterization of a marine bacterium associated with virus inactivating capacity. Acta Path. Microbiol. Scand. 71:281–286.Google Scholar
  95. Halliday, M. L., Kang, L.-Y., Zhou, T.-Z., Hu, M.-D., Pan, Q.-C., Fu, T.-Y., Huang, Y. S., and Hu, S. L., 1991, An epidemic of hepatitis A attributable to the ingestion of raw clams in Shanghai, China. J. Infect. Dis. 164:852–859.Google Scholar
  96. Halvorsrud, J., and Orstavick, I., 1980. An epidemic of rotavirus-associated gastroenteritis in a nursing home for the elderly. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 12:161–164.Google Scholar
  97. Harper, G. J., 1961, Airborne microorganisms: survival tests with four viruses. J. Hyg. (Cambridge) 59:479–486.Google Scholar
  98. Hejkal, T.W., Smith, E. M., and Gerba, C. P., 1984, Seasonal occurrence of rotavirus in sewage. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 47:588–590.Google Scholar
  99. Hemmes, J. H., Winkler, K.C., and Kool, S. M., 1960, Virus survival as a seasonal factor in influenza and poliomyelitis. Nature 188:430–438.Google Scholar
  100. Hendley, J. O., Wenzel, R. P., and Gwaltney Jr, J. M., 1973, Transmission of rhinovirus colds by self-inoculation. N. Engl. J. Med. 288:1361–1364.Google Scholar
  101. Henshilwood, K., Green, J., and Lees, D. N., 1998, Monitoring the marine environment for small round structured viruses (SRSVS): a new approach to combating the transmission of these viruses by molluscan shellfish. Water Sci.Tech. 38:51–56.Google Scholar
  102. Hopkins, R. S., Gaspard, G. B., Williams, F. P. Jr, Karlin, R. J., Cukor, G., and Blacklow, N. R., 1984, A community waterborne gastroenteritis outbreak: evidence for rotavirus as the agent. Am. J. Public Health 74:263–265.Google Scholar
  103. Huang, F. F., Haqshenas, G., Shivaprasad, H. L., Guenette, D. K., Woolcock, P. R., Larsen, C. T., Pierson, F. W., Elvinger, F., Toth, T. E., and Meng, X. J., 2002, Heterogeneity and seroprevalence of a newly identified avian hepatitis E virus from chickens in the United States. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:4197–4202.Google Scholar
  104. Huber, M. S., Gerba, C. P., Abbaszedagan, M., Robinson, J. A., and Bradford, S. M., 1994, Study of persistence of enteric viruses in land filled disposable diapers. Environ. Sci. Technol. 28:1767–1772.Google Scholar
  105. Hugues, B., Cini, A., Plissier, M., and Lefebre, J. R., 1980, Recherche des virus dans le milieu marin à partir d’échantillons de volumes différents. Eau. Ouetec. 13:199–203.Google Scholar
  106. Humphrey, T. J., Cruickshank, J.G., and Cubitt, W.D., 1984, An outbreak of calicivirus associated gastroenteritis in an elderly persons home: a possible zoonosis? J. Hyg. (London) 93:293–299.Google Scholar
  107. Hung, T., Wang, C. H., Fang, Z., Chou, Z., Chang, X., Liong, X., Chen, G., Yao, H., Chaon T., Ye, W., Den, S., and Chang, W., 1984, Waterborne outbreak of rotavirus diarrhoea in adults in China caused by a novel rotavirus. Lancet 2:1139–1142.Google Scholar
  108. Hurst, C. J., 1987, Influence of aerobic microorganisms upon virus survival in soil. Can. J. Microbiol. 34:696–699.Google Scholar
  109. Hurst, C. J., Farrah, S. R., Gerba, C. P., and Melnick, J. L., 1978, Development of quantitative methods for the detection of enteroviruses in sewage sludges during activation and following land disposal. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 36:81–89.Google Scholar
  110. Hurst, C. J., Gerba, C. P., and Cech, I., 1980, Effects of environmental variables and soil characteristics on virus survival in soil. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 40:1067–1079.Google Scholar
  111. Ijaz, M. K., Brunner, A. H., Sattar, S. A., Nair, R. C., and Johnson-Lussenburg, C. M., 1985a, Survival characteristics of airborne human coronavirus 229E. J. Gen. Virol. 66:2743–2748.Google Scholar
  112. Ijaz, M. K., Sattar, S. A., Johnson-Lussenburg, C. M., and Springthorpe, V. S., 1985b, Comparison of the airborne survival of calf rotavirus and poliovirus type 1 (Sabin) aerosolized as a mixture, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 49:289–293.Google Scholar
  113. Jiang, X., Espul, C., Zhong, W. M., Cuello, H., and Matson, D. O., 1999, Characterization of a novel human calicivirus that may be a naturally occurring recombinant. Arch. Virol. 144:2377–2387.Google Scholar
  114. Jofre, J., Blasi, M., Bosch, A., and Lucena, F., 1989, Occurrence of bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides fragilis and other viruses in polluted marine sediments. Water Sci. Tech. 21:15–19.Google Scholar
  115. Kaplan, J. E., Godman, R. A., Schonberger, L. B., Lippy, E. C., and Gary, W., 1982, Gastroenteritis due to Norwalk virus: an outbreak associated with a municipal water system. J. Infect. Dis. 146:190–197.Google Scholar
  116. Kapuscinski, R. B., and Mitchell, R., 1980, Processes controlling virus inactivation in coastal waters. Water Res. 14:363–371.Google Scholar
  117. Katzenelson, E., 1978, Survival of viruses, in: Indicators of Viruses in Water and Food (G. Berg, eds.), Ann Arbor Sci., Ann Arbor, MI, pp. 39–50.Google Scholar
  118. Katzenelson, E., Fattal, B., and Hostovesky, T., 1976, Organic flocculation: an efficient second-step concentration method for the detection of viruses in tap water. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 32:638–639.Google Scholar
  119. Keswick, B. H., Gerba, C. P., DuPont, H. L., and Rose J. B., 1984, Detection of enteroviruses in treated drinking water. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 47:1290–1294.Google Scholar
  120. Keswick, B. H., Pickering, L. K., DuPont, H. L., and Woodward, W. E., 1983, Survival and detection of rotaviruses on environmental surfaces in day care centers. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 46:813–816.Google Scholar
  121. Khuroo, M. S., 1980, Study of an epidemic of non A, non B hepatitis—possibility of another human hepatitis virus distinct from post-transfusion non A, non B type. Am. J. Med. 68:818–824.Google Scholar
  122. Kingsley, D. H., Meade, G. K., and Richards, G. P., 2002, Detection of both hepatitis A virus and Norwalk-like virus in imported clams associated with food-borne illness. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:3914–3918.Google Scholar
  123. Kohn, A., Gitelman, J., and Inbar, M., 1980, Unsaturated free fatty acids inactivate animal enveloped viruses. Arch. Virol. 66:301–307.Google Scholar
  124. Konowalchuk, J., and Speirs, J. I., 1975, Survival of enteric viruses on fresh vegetables. J. Milk Food Technol. 38:469–472.Google Scholar
  125. Konowalchuk, J., and Speirs, J. I., 1976, Virus inactivation by grapes and wines. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 32:757–763.Google Scholar
  126. Konowalchuk, J., and Speirs, J. I., 1978, Antiviral effect of commercial juices and beverages. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 35:1219–1220.Google Scholar
  127. Koopman, J. S., Eckert, E. A., Greenberg, H. B., Strohm, B. C., Isaacson, R. E., and Monto, A. S., 1982, Norwalk virus enteric illness acquired by swimming exposure. Am. J. Epidemiol. 115:173–177.Google Scholar
  128. Kopecka, H., Dubrou, S., Prévot, J., Maréchal, J., and López-Pila, J. M., 1993, Detection of naturally occurring enteroviruses in waters by reverse transcription, polymerase chain reaction and hybridization. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59:1213–1219.Google Scholar
  129. Kott, H., and Fishelson, L., 1974, Survival of enteroviruses on vegetables irrigated with chlorinated oxidation pond effluents. Isr. J. Technol. 12:290–297.Google Scholar
  130. Ksiazek, T. G., Erdman, D., Goldsmith, C. S., Zaki, S. R., Peret, T., Emery, S., Tong, S., Urbani, C., Comer, J. A., Lim, W., Rollin, P. E., Dowell, S. F., Ling, A.-E., Humphrey, C. D., Shieh, W.-J., Guarner, J., Paddock, C. D., Rota, P., Fields, B., DeRisi, J., Yang, J.-Y., Cox, N., Hughes, J. M., LeDuc, J. W., Bellini, W. J., Anderson, L. J., and the SARS Working Group, 2003, A novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med. 348:1953–1966.Google Scholar
  131. Kukkula, M., Maunula, L., Silvennoinen, E., and von Bosndorff, C. H., 1999. Outbreak of viral gastroenteritis due to drinking water contaminated by Norwalk-like viruses. J. Infect. Dis. 180:1771–1776.Google Scholar
  132. La Belle, R. L., Gerba, C. P., Goyal, S. M., Melnick, J. L., Lech, I., and Bogdan, G. F., 1980, Relationships between environmental factors, bacterial indicators and the occurrence of enteric viruses in estuarine sediments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 39:588–596.Google Scholar
  133. Landry, E. F., Vaughn, J. M., Vicale, T. J., and Mann, R., 1983, Accumulation of sediment-associated viruses in shellfish. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 45:238–247.Google Scholar
  134. Larkin, E. P., Tierney, J. T., and Sullivan, R., 1976, Persistence of virus on sewage-irrigated vegetables. J. Environ. Eng. Div. 1:29–35.Google Scholar
  135. Le Bris, J. M., Billaudel, S., Bertrand, P., Loukou, G., and et Courtieu, A. L., 1983, Recherche des virus et des salmonelles dans la Loire par une méthode d’adsorption-élution sur filtres en microfibre de verre. Tech. Sci. Munic. L’Eau. 6:303–306.Google Scholar
  136. Lefler, E., and Kott, Y., 1974, Enteric virus behavior in sand dunes. Isr. J. Technol. 12:298–304.Google Scholar
  137. Le Guyader, F., Dubois, E., Menard, D., and Pommepuy, M., 1994, Detection of hepatitis A virus, rotavirus, and enterovirus in naturally contaminated shellfish and sediment by reverse transcription-seminested PCR. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:3665–3671.Google Scholar
  138. Le Guyader, F., Neill, F. H., Estes, M. K., Monroe, S. S., Ando, T., and Atmar, R. L., 1996, Detection and analysis of a SRSV strain in oysters implicated in an outbreak. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62:4268–4272.Google Scholar
  139. Lemon, S. M., 1985, Type A viral hepatitis—new developments in an old disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 313:1059–1067.Google Scholar
  140. Lenaway, D. D., Brockmann, R., Dolan, G. J., and Cruz-Uribe F., 1989, An outbreak of an enterovirus-like illness at a community wading pool: implications for public health inspection programs. Am. J. Public Health 79:889–890.Google Scholar
  141. Lewis, G. D., and Metcalf, T. G., 1988, Polyethylene glycol precipitation for recovery of pathogenic viruses, including hepatits A virus and human rotavirus, from oysters, water and sediment samples. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54:1983–1988.Google Scholar
  142. Linco, S. J., and Grohmann, G. S., 1980, The Darwin outbreak of oyster associated viral gastroenteritis. Med. J. Aust. 1:211–213.Google Scholar
  143. Lippy, E. C., and Waltrip, S. C., 1984, Waterborne disease outbreaks 1946–1980: a thirty-five-year perspective. J. Am.Water Works Assoc. 76:60–67.Google Scholar
  144. Lo, S., Gilbert, J., and Hetrick, F., 1976, Stability of human enteroviruses in estuarine and marine waters. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 32:245–248.Google Scholar
  145. Lopman, B. A., Reacher, M. H., Van Duijnhoven, Y., Hanon, F. X., Brown, D., and Koopmans, M., 2003, Viral gastroenteritis outbreaks in Europe, 1995–2000. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9:90–96.Google Scholar
  146. Lucena, F., Bosch, A., Jofre, J., and Schwartzbrod, L., 1985, Identification of viruses isolated from sewage, river water and coastal seawater in Barcelona. Water Res. 19:1237–1239.Google Scholar
  147. Mahl, M. C., and Sadler, C., 1975, Virus survival on inanimate surfaces. Can. J. Microbiol. 21:819–823.Google Scholar
  148. Matossian, A. M., and Garabedian, G. A., 1967, Virucidal action of seawater. Am. J. Epidemiol. 85:1–8.Google Scholar
  149. Mbithi, J. N., Springthorpe, V. S., and Sattar, S. A., 1991, Effect of relative humidity and air temperature on survival of hepatitis A virus on environmental surfaces. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59:3463–3469.Google Scholar
  150. Mbithi, J. N., Springthorpe, V. S., Boulet, J. R., and Sattar, S. A., 1992, Survival of hepatitis A virus on human hands and its transfer on contact with animate and inanimate surfaces. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:757–763.Google Scholar
  151. McGeady, M. L., Siak, J. S., and Crowell, R. L., 1979, Survival of coxsackie virus B3 under diverse environmental conditions. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 37:972–977.Google Scholar
  152. McNulty, M. S., 1978, Rotaviruses. J. Gen. Virol. 40:1–18.Google Scholar
  153. Mead, P. S., Slutsker, L., and Dietz, V., 1999, Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerg. Inf. Dis. 5:607–625.Google Scholar
  154. Mehnert, D. U., Stewien, K. E., Hársi, C. M., Queiroz, A. P. S., Candeias, J. M. G., and Candeias, J. A. N., 1997, Detection of rotavirus in sewage and creek water: efficiency of the concentration method. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 92:97–100.Google Scholar
  155. Melnick, J. L., 1957, A water-borne urban epidemics of hepatitis, in: Hepatitis Frontiers (G. A. LoGrippo, F. W. Hartman, J. G. Mateer, and J. Barron, eds.), Little Brown, Boston, pp. 211–225.Google Scholar
  156. Melnick, J. L., and Gerba, C. P., 1980, The ecology of enteroviruses in natural waters. Crit. Rev. Environ. Control. 10:65–93.Google Scholar
  157. Meng, X. J., Purcell, R. H., Halbur, P. G., Lehman, J. R., Webb, D. M., Tsareva, T. S., Haynes, J. S., Thacker, B. J., and Emerson S. U., 1997, A novel virus in swine is closely related to the human hepatitis E virus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 94:9860–9865.Google Scholar
  158. Miller, W. S., and Artenstein, M. S., 1967, Aerosol stability of three acute respiratory disease viruses. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 125:222–227.Google Scholar
  159. MMWR (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report), 2002, Surveillance for water-bornedisease outbreaks—United States, 1999–2000. MMWR 51:1–52.Google Scholar
  160. MMWR (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report), 2003, Hepatitis A outbreak associated with green onions at a restaurant—Monaca, Pennsylvania, 2003. MMWR 52:1155–1157.Google Scholar
  161. Moe, K., and Harper, G. J., 1983, The effect of relative humidity and temperature on the survival of bovine rotavirus in aerosol. Arch. Virol. 76:211–216.Google Scholar
  162. Moe, K., and Shirley, J. A., 1982, The effects of relative humidity and temperature on the survival of human rotavirus in feces. Arch. Virol. 72:179–186.Google Scholar
  163. Moore, M., 1982, Enteroviral disease in the United States, 1970–1979. J. Infect. Dis. 146:103–108.Google Scholar
  164. Moore, A. C., Herwaldt, B. L., Craun, G. F., Calderon, R. L., Highsmith, A. K., and Juranek, D. D., 1994, Waterborne disease in the United States, 1991 and 1992. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 86:87–99.Google Scholar
  165. Morse, D. L., Guzewich, J. J., Hanrahan, J. P., Stricof, R., Shayegani, M., Deibel, R., Grabau, J. C., Nowak, N. A., Herrmann, J. E., Cukor, G., and Blacklow, N. R., 1986, Widespread outbreaks of clam-and oyster-associated gastroenteritis: role of Norwalk virus. New Engl. J. Med. 314:678–681.Google Scholar
  166. Mosley, J. W., 1967, Transmission of viruses by drinking water, in: Transmission of Viruses by the Water Route (G. Berg, eds.), John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 5–23.Google Scholar
  167. Mounts, A.W., Ando, T. A., Koopmans, M., Bresee, J. S., Inouye, S., Noel, J., and Glass, R. I., 2000, Cold weather seasonality of gastroenteritis associated with Norwalklike viruses. J. Infect. Dis. 181:284–287.Google Scholar
  168. Murphy, A. M., Grohmann, G. S., Christopher, R. J., Lopez, W. A., Davey, G. R., and Millsom, R. H., 1979, An Australia-wide outbreak of gastroenteritis from oysters caused by Norwalk virus. Med. J. Aust. 2:329–333.Google Scholar
  169. Murphy, A. M., Grohmann, G. S., and Sexton, F. H., 1983, Infectious gastroenteritis in Norfolk Island and recovery of viruses from drinking water. J. Hyg. 91:139–146.Google Scholar
  170. Muscillo, M., La Rosa, G., Carducci, A., Cantiani, L., and Marianelli, C., 1997, Molecular analysis of poliovirus 3 isolated from an aerosol generated by a waste water treatment plant. Water Res. 12:3125–3131.Google Scholar
  171. Nuanualsuwan, S., and Cliver, D. O., 2002, Pretreatment to avoid positive RT-PCR results with inactivated viruses. J. Virol. Methods 104:217–225.Google Scholar
  172. O’Brien, R. T., and Newman, J. S., 1977, Inactivation of poliovirus and coxsackie viruses in surface water. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 33:334–340.Google Scholar
  173. Oh, D.-Y., Gaedicke, G., and Schreir, J. M., 2003, Viral agents of acute gastroenteritis in German children: prevalence and molecular diversity. J. Med. Virol. 71:82–93.Google Scholar
  174. O’Mahony, M., Gooch, C.D., Smyth, D.A., Thrussell, A. J., Bartlett, C. L. R., and Noah, N. D., 1983, Epidemic hepatitis A from cockles. Lancet I:518–520.Google Scholar
  175. Parashar, U. D., Holman, R. C., Clarke, M. J., Bresee, J. S., and Glass R. I., 1998, Hospitalizations associated with rotavirus diarrhea in the United States, 1993 through 1995: surveillance based on the new ICD-9-CM rotavirus-specific diagnostic code. J. Infect. Dis. 177:13–17.Google Scholar
  176. Payment, P., Berte, A., Prevost, M., Ménard, B., and Barbeau, B., 2000, Occurrence of pathogenic microorganisms in the Saint-Lawrence river (Canada) and comparison of health risks for populations using it as their source of drinking water. Can. J. Microbiol. 46:565–576.Google Scholar
  177. Pfirrmann, A., and Bossche, G.V., 1994, Occurrence and isolation of airborne human enteroviruses from waste disposal and utilization plants. Zbl. Hyg. 196:38–51.Google Scholar
  178. Pintó, R. M., Diez, J. M., and Bosch, A., 1994, Use of the colonic carcinoma cell line CaCo-2 for in vivo amplification and detection of enteric viruses. J. Med. Virol. 44:310–315.Google Scholar
  179. Pintó, R. M., Gajardo, R., Abad, F. X., and Bosch, A., 1995, Detection of fastidious infectious enteric viruses in water. Environ. Sci. Tech. 29:2636–2638.Google Scholar
  180. Pintó, R. M., Villena, C., Le Guyader, F., Guix, S., Caballero, S., Pommepuy, M., and Bosch, A., 2001, Astrovirus detection in wastewater samples. Water Sci. Tech. 12:73–76.Google Scholar
  181. Ramalingaswami, V., and Purcell, R. H., 1988, Waterborne non-A, non-B hepatitis. Lancet. 1:571–573.Google Scholar
  182. Rao, V. C., and Melnick, J. L., 1986, Environmental virology, in: Aspects of Microbiology 13 (J. A. Cole, C. J. Knowles, and D. Schlessinger, eds.), American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  183. Rao, V. C., Seidel, K. N., Goyal, S. M., Metcalf, T. C., and Melnick, J. L., 1984, Isolation of enteroviruses from water, suspended solids and sediments from Galveston bay; survival of poliovirus and rotavirus adsorbed to sediments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 48:404–409.Google Scholar
  184. Rao, V. C., Metcalf, T. G., and Melnick, J. L., 1986, Development of a method for concentration of rotavirus and its application to recovery of rotaviruses from estuarine waters. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 52:484–488.Google Scholar
  185. Raphael, R. A., Sattar, S. A., and Springthorpe, V. S., 1985, Long term survival of human rotavirus in raw and treated river water. Can. J. Microbiol. 31:124–128.Google Scholar
  186. Reagan, K. J., McGeady, M. L., and Crowell, R. L., Persistence of human rhinovirus infectivity under diverse environmental conditions. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 41:618–627.Google Scholar
  187. Redman, J. A., Grant, S. B., Olson, T. M., Hardy, M. E., and Estes, M. K., 1997, Filtration of recombinant Norwalk Virus particles and bacteriophage MS2 in quartz sand: importance of electrostatic interactions. Environ. Sci. Tech. 31:3378–3383.Google Scholar
  188. Reid, T. M. S., and Robinson, H. G., 1987, Frozen raspberries and hepatitis A. Epidemiol. Infect. 98:109–112.Google Scholar
  189. Reyes, G. R., 1993, Hepatitis E virus (HEV): molecular biology and emerging epidemiology. Prog. Liver Dis. 11:203–213.Google Scholar
  190. Reynolds, K. A., Gerba, C. P., and Pepper, I. L., 1996, Detection of infectious enteroviruses by an integrated cell culture-PCR procedure. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62:1424–1427.Google Scholar
  191. Reynolds, K. A., Gerba, C. P., Abbaszadegan, M., and Pepper, I. L., 2001, ICC/PCR detection of enteroviruses and hepatitis A virus in environmental samples. Can. J. Microbiol. 47:153–157.Google Scholar
  192. Richards, G. P., 1985, Outbreaks of shellfish-associated enteric illness in the United-States: requisite for development of viral guidelines. J. Food Prot. 48:815–823.Google Scholar
  193. Rocchi, G., Vella, S., Resta, S., Cochi, S., Donelli, G., Tangucci, F., Manichella, D., Varveri, A., and Inglese R., 1981, Outbreak of rotavirus gastroenteritis among premature infants. Br. Med. J. 283:886.Google Scholar
  194. Ryder, R.W., McGowan, J. E., Hatch, M. H., and Palmer, E. L., 1977, Reovirus-like agent as a cause of nosocomial diarrhoea in infants. J. Pediatr. 90:698–702.Google Scholar
  195. Rzutka, A., and Cook, N., 2004, Survival of human enteric viruses in the environment and food. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (in press).Google Scholar
  196. Salo, R. J., and Cliver, D. O., 1976, Effect of acid pH, salt and temperature on the infectivity and physical integrity of enteroviruses. Arch. Virol. 52:269–282.Google Scholar
  197. Sánchez, G., Bosch, A., and Pintó, R. M., 2003, Genome variability and capsid structural constraints of hepatitis A virus. J. Virol. 77:452–459.Google Scholar
  198. Santamaría, J., and Toranzos, G. A., 2003, Enteric pathogens and soil: a short review. Int. Microbiol. 6:5–9.Google Scholar
  199. Sarrette, B. A., Danglot, C. D., and Vilagines, R., 1977, A new and simple method for recuperation of enterovirus from water. Water Res. 11:355–358.Google Scholar
  200. Sattar, S. A., Ijaz, M. K., Johnson-Lussenburg, C. M., and Springthorpe, V. S., 1984, Effect of relative humidity on the airborne survival of rotavirus SA11. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 47:879–881.Google Scholar
  201. Sattar, S. A., Lloyd-Evans, N., Springthorpe, V. S., and Nair, R. C., 1986, Institutional outbreaks of rotavirus diarrhoea: potential role of fomites and environmental surfaces as vehicles for virus transmission. J. Hyg. Camb. 96:277–289.Google Scholar
  202. Sattar, S. A., Karim, Y. G., Springthorpe, V. S., and Johnson-Lussenburg, C. M., 1987, Survival of human rhinovirus type 14 dried onto nonporous inanimate surfaces: effect of relative humidity and suspending medium. Can. J. Microbiol. 33:802–806.Google Scholar
  203. Sattar, S. A., Dimock, K. D., Ansari, S. A., and Springthorpe, V. S., 1988, Spread of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis due to enterovirus 70: effect of air temperature and relative humidity on virus survival on fomites. J. Med. Virol. 25:289–296.Google Scholar
  204. Schaiberger, G. E., Edmond, T.D., and Gerba, C.P., 1982, Distribution of enteroviruses in sediments contiguous with a deep marine sewage outfall. Water Res. 16:1425–1428.Google Scholar
  205. Schwartzbrod, L., and Lucena, F., 1978, Concentration des enterovirus dans les eaux par adsorption sur poudre de verre: proposition d’un apareillage simplifié. Microbia. 4:55–68.Google Scholar
  206. Shields, P. A., and Farrah, S. R., 1986, Concentration of viruses in beef extract by flocculation with ammonium sulphate. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 51:211–213.Google Scholar
  207. Shirai, J., Shimizu, M., and Fukusho, A., 1985, Coronavirus-, calicivirus-, and astrovirus-like particles associated with acute porcine gastroenteritis. Nippon Juigaku Zasshi 47:1023–1026.Google Scholar
  208. Shuval, H. I., Thompson, A., Fattal, B., Cymbalista, S., and Weiner, Y., 1971, Natural virus inactivation processes in seawater. J. San. Eng. Div. Am. Soc. Civ. Eng. 5:587–600.Google Scholar
  209. Sobsey, M.D., and Jones, B. L., 1979, Concentration of poliovirus from tap water using positively charged microporous filters. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 37:588–595.Google Scholar
  210. Sobsey, M. D., and Glass, J. S., 1984, Influence of water quality on enteric virus concentration by microporous filter methods. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 47:956–960.Google Scholar
  211. Sobsey, M. D., and Hickey, A. R., 1985, Effect of humic and fulvic acid on poliovirus concentration from water by microporous filtration. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 49:259–264.Google Scholar
  212. Sobsey, M.D., Dean, C. H., Knuckles, M. E., and Wagner, R.A., 1980, Interactions and survival of enteric viruses in soil materials. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 40:92–101.Google Scholar
  213. Sobsey, M.D., Shields, P. A., Hauchman, F. S., Davis, A. L., Rullman, V. A., and Bosch, A., 1988, Survival and persistence of hepatitis A virus in environmental samples, in: Viral Hepatitis and Lliver Disease (A. Zuckerman, eds.), Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 121–124.Google Scholar
  214. Sobsey, M. D., Shields, P. A., Hauchman, F. H., Hazard, R. L., and Caton,III, L.W., 1989, Survival and transport of hepatitis A virus in soils, groundwater and wastewater. Water Sci. Technol. 10:97–106.Google Scholar
  215. Steinman, J., 1981, Detection of rotavirus in sewage. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 41:1043–1045.Google Scholar
  216. Straub, T. M., Pepper, I. L., and Gerba, C. P., 1992, Persistence of viruses in desert soils amended with anaerobically digested sewage sludge. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:636–641.Google Scholar
  217. Straub, T. M., Pepper, I. L., and Gerba, C. P., 1993, Virus survival in sewage sludge amended desert soil. Water Sci. Tech. 27:421–424.Google Scholar
  218. Strauss, M., 1994, Health implications of excreta and wastewater use—Hubei environmental sanitation study, 2nd workshop, Hubei, Wuhan.Google Scholar
  219. Teltsch, B., Kedmi, S., Bonnet, L., Borenzstajn-Rotem, Y., and Katzenelson, E., 1980, Isolation and identification of pathogenic microorganisms at wastewater-irrigated fields: ratios in air and wastewater. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 39:1183–1190.Google Scholar
  220. Thurston-Enriquez, J. A., Haas, C. N., Jacangelo, J., and Gerba, C. P., 2003a, Chlorine inactivation of adenovirus type 40 and feline calicivirus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:3979–3985.Google Scholar
  221. Thurston-Enriquez, J. A., Haas, C. N., Jacangelo, J., Riley, K., and Gerba, C. P., 2003b, Inactivation of feline calicivirus and adenovirus type 40 by UV radiation. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:577–582.Google Scholar
  222. Tierney, J. T., Sullivan, R., and Larkin, E. P., 1977, Persistence of poliovirus 1 in soil and on vegetables grown in soil previously flooded with inoculated sewage sludge or effluent. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 33:109–113Google Scholar
  223. Toranzo, A. E., Barja, J. L., and Hetrick, F. M., 1983, Mechanism of poliovirus inactivation by cell-free filtrates of marine bacteria. Can. J. Microbiol. 29:1481–1486.Google Scholar
  224. Trouwborst, T., Kuyper, S., de Jong, J. C., and Plantinga, A. D., 1974, Inactivation of some bacterial and animal viruses by exposure to liquid-air interfaces. J. Gen. Virol. 24:155–165.Google Scholar
  225. Tsai, Y.-L., Tran, B., and Palmer, C. J., 1995, Analysis of viral RNA persistence in seawater by reverse transcriptase-PCR. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:363–366.Google Scholar
  226. Tsang, T., 2003, Environmental issues. WHO Global Conference on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 17–18 June 2003.Google Scholar
  227. Unicomb, L. E., Podder, G., Gentsch, J. R., Woods P. A., Hasan, K. Z., Faruque, A. S., Albert, M. J., and Glass, R. I., 1999, Evidence of high-frequency genomic reassortment of group A rotavirus strains in Bangladesh: emergence of type G9 in 1995. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:1885–1891.Google Scholar
  228. van der Poel, W. H. M., Verschoor, F., van der Heide, R., Herrera, M. I., Vivo, A., Kooreman M., and de Roda Husman, A. M., 2001, Hepatitis E virus sequences in swine related to sequences in humans, the Netherlands. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 6:970–976.Google Scholar
  229. Vaughn, J. M., Landry, E. F., Thomas, M. Z., Vicale, T. J., and Penello, W. F., 1979, Survey of human enterovirus occurrence in fresh and marine surface waters on Long-Island. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 38:290–296.Google Scholar
  230. Vilaginès, P., Sarrette, B., Champsaur, H., Hugues, B., Dubrou, S., Joret, J.-C., Laveran, H., Lesne, J., Paquin, J. L., Delattre, J. M., Oger, C., Alame, J., Grateloup, I., Perrollett, H., Serceau, R., Sinègre, F., and Vilaginès, R., 1997, Round robin investigation of glass wool method for poliovirus recovery from drinking water and sea water. Water Sci. Tech. 35:445–449.Google Scholar
  231. Villena, C., Gabrielli, R., Pintó, R. M., Guix, S., Donia, D., Buonomo, E., Palombi, L., Cenko, F., Bino, S., Bosch, A., and Divizia, M., 2003, A large infantile gastroenteritis outbreak in Albania caused by multiple emerging rotavirus genotypes. Epidemiol. Infect. 131:1105–1110.Google Scholar
  232. Wadell, G., Allard, A. Svensson, L., and Uhnoo, I., 1989, Enteric adenoviruses, in: Viruses and the Gut (M. J. G. Farthing, eds.), Smith, Kline and French, Welwyn Garden City, UK., pp. 70–78.Google Scholar
  233. Wait, D. A., and Sobsey, M.D., 1983, Method for recovery of enteric viruses from estuarine sediments with caotropic agents. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 46:379–385.Google Scholar
  234. Walter, R., Macht, W., Durkop, J., Becht, R., Hornig, U., and Schulze, P., 1989, Virus levels in river waters. Water Res. 21:133–138.Google Scholar
  235. Ward, B. K., and Irving, L. G., 1987,Virus survival on vegetables spray-irrigated with wastewater. Water Res. 21:57–63.Google Scholar
  236. Ward, B. K., Chenoweth, C. M., and Irving, L.G., 1982, Recovery of viruses from vegetable surfaces. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 44:1389–1394.Google Scholar
  237. Ward, R. L., Knowlton, D. R., and Winston, P. E., 1986, Mechanism of inactivation of enteric viruses in fresh water. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 52:450–459.Google Scholar
  238. Weissman, J. B., Craun, G. F., Lawrence, D. N., Pollard, R. A., Saslaw, M. S., and Gangarosa, E. J., 1976, An epidemic of gastroenteritis traced to a contaminated public water supply. Am. J. Epidemiol. 103:391–398.Google Scholar
  239. Yeager, J.G., and O’Brien, R.T., 1979, Enterovirus inactivation in soil. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 38:694–701.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Albert Bosch
    • 1
  • Rosa M. Pintó
    • 1
  • F. Xavier Abad
    • 1
  1. 1.Enteric Virus Laboratory, Department of MicrobiologyUniversity of BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain

Personalised recommendations