Viral Infections in ICU Patients

  • Greenberg David E. 
  • Greenberg Stephen B. 
Part of the Perspective on Critical Care Infectious Diseases book series (CCID, volume 9)


Intensive Care Unit Respiratory Syncytial Virus West Nile Virus Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Chernoff AE, Snydman DR. Viral infections in the intensive care unit. New Horiz 1993;1:279–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Couch RB, Englund JA, Whimbey E. Respiratory viral infections in immunocompetent and immunocompromised persons. Am J Med 1997;102(3A):2–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Greenberg SB. Infections in the immunocompromised rheumatologic patient. Crit Care Clin 2002;18:931–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hicks KL, Chemaly RF, Kontoyiannis DP. Common community respiratory viruses in patients with cancer: more than just “common colds”. Cancer. 2003;97:2576–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dowell SF, Anderson LJ, Gary HE Jr, Erdman DD, Plouffe JF, File TM Jr, Marston BJ, Breiman RF. Respiratory syncytial virus is an important cause of community-acquired lower respiratory infection among hospitalized adults. J Infect Dis 1996;174:456–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dudding BA, Wagner SC, Zeller JA, Gmelich JT, French GR, Top FH Jr. Fatal pneumonia associated with adenovirus type 7 in three military trainees. N Engl J Med 1972;286:1289–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Greenberg SB. Viral pneumonia. Infect Dis Clin North Am 1991;5:603–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rello J, Diaz E. Pneumonia in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med 2003;31:2544–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Baine WB, Luby JP, Martin SM. Severe illness with influenza B. Am J Med 1980;68:181–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Luksza AR, Jones DK. Influenza B virus infection complicated by pneumonia, acute renal failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation. J Infect 1984;9:174–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Motallebi M, Mukunda BN, Ravakhah K. Adenoviral bronchopneumonia in an immunocompetent adult: computed tomography and pathologic correlations. Am J Med Sci 2003;325:285–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Aitken C, Jeffries DJ. Nosocomial spread of viral disease. Clin Microbiol Rev 2001;14:528–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Holladay RC, Campbell GD Jr. Nosocomial viral pneumonia in the intensive care unit. Clin Chest Med 1995;16:121–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ibrahim EH, Ward S, Sherman G, Kollef MH. A comparative analysis of patients with early-onset vs late-onset nosocomial pneumonia in the ICU setting. Chest 2000;117:1434–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Raad I, Abbas J, Whimbey E. Infection control of nosocomial respiratory viral disease in the immunocompromised host. Am J Med 1997;102:48–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Valenti WM. “Selected Viruses of Nosocomial Importance.” In Hosptial Infections 4 th ed., JV Bennett and PS Brachman, ed. Philadelphia PA: Lippincott-Raven, 1998.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Whimbey E, Bodey GP. Viral pneumonia in the immunocompromised adult with neoplastic disease: the role of common community respiratory viruses. Semin Respir Infect. 1992;7:122–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Whimbey E, Champlin RE, Couch RB, Englund JA, Goodrich JM, Raad I, Przepiorka D, Lewis VA, Mirza N, Yousuf H, Tarrand JJ, Bodey GP. Community respiratory virus infections among hospitalized adult bone marrow transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis 1996;22:778–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Whimbey E, Couch RB, Englund JA, Andreeff M, Goodrich JM, Raad II, Lewis V, Mirza N, Luna MA, Baxter B, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia in hospitalized adult patients with leukemia. Clin Infect Dis 1995;21:376–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Whimbey E, Ghosh S. Respiratory syncytial virus infections in immunocompromised adults. Curr Clin Top Infect Dis 2000;20:232–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Arata K, Sakata R, Iguro Y, Toda R, Watanabe S, Eitsuru Y. Herpes simplex viral pneumonia after coronary artery bypass grafting. Jpn J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2003;51:158–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    de la Hoz RE, Stephens G, Sherlock C. Diagnosis and treatment approaches of CMV infections in adult patients. J Clin Virol 2002;25Suppl 2:S1–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Eisenstein LE, Cunha BA. Herpes simplex virus pneumonia presenting as failure to wean from a ventilator. Heart Lung 2003;32:65–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Feldman S, Stokes DC. Varicella zoster and herpes simplex virus pneumonias. Semin Respir Infect 1987;2:84–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Graham BS, Snell JD Jr. Herpes simplex virus infection of the adult lower respiratory tract. Medicine (Baltimore) 1983;62:384–93.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Greenberg SB. Respiratory herpesvirus infections. An overview. Chest 1994;106:1S–2S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Guidry GG, Black-Payne CA, Payne DK, Jamison RM, George RB, Bocchini JA Jr. Respiratory syncytial virus infection among intubated adults in a university medical intensive care unit. Chest 1991;100:1377–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Klainer AS, Oud L, Randazzo J, Freiheiter J, Bisaccia E, Gerhard H. Herpes simplex virus involvement of the lower respiratory tract following surgery. Chest 1994;106:8S–14S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Manna A, Cordani S, Canessa P, Pronzato P. CMV infection and pneumonia in hematological malignancies. J Infect Chemother 2003;9:265–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mohsen AH, McKendrick M. Varicella pneumonia in adults. Eur Respir J 2003;21:886–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ramsey PG, Fife KH, Hackman RC, Meyers JD, Corey L. Herpes simplex virus pneumonia: clinical, virologic, and pathologic features in 20 patients. Ann Intern Med 1982;97:813–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Retalis P, Strange C, Harley R. The spectrum of adult adenovirus pneumonia. Chest 1996;109:1656–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Stephan F, Meharzi D, Ricci S, Fajac A, Clergue F, Bernaudin JF. Evaluation by polymerase chain reaction of cytomegalovirus reactivation in intensive care patients under mechanical ventilation. Intensive Care Med 1996;22:1244–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Umans U, Golding RP, Duraku S, Manoliu RA. Herpes simplex virus 1 pneumonia: conventional chest radiograph pattern. Eur Radiol 2001;11:990–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zahradnik JM. Adenovirus pneumonia. Semin Respir Infect 1987;2:104–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kim EA, Lee KS, Primack SL, Yoon HK, Byun HS, Kim TS, Suh GY, Kwon OJ, Han J. Viral pneumonias in adults: radiologic and pathologic findings. Radiographics 2002;22 Spec No:S137-49.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fleming DM, Zambon M. Update on influenza and other viral pneumonias. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2001;14:199–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Oikonomou A, Muller NL, Nantel S. Radiographic and high-resolution CT findings of influenza virus pneumonia in patients with hematologic malignancies. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2003;181:507–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Oliveira EC, Marik PE, Colice G. Influenza pneumonia: a descriptive study. Chest 2001;119:1717–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kaiser L, Wat C, Mills T, Mahoney P, Ward P, Hayden F. Impact of oseltamivir treatment on influenza-related lower respiratory tract complications and hospitalizations. Arch Intern Med 2003;163:1667–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Monto AS, Webster A, Keene O. Randomized, placebo-controlled studies of inhaled zanamivir in the treatment of influenza A and B: pooled efficacy analysis. J Antimicrob Chemother 1999;44Suppl B:23–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Aylward RB, Burdge DR. Ribavirin therapy of adult respiratory syncytial virus pneumonitis. Arch Intern Med 1991;151:2303–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Englund JA, Piedra PA, Whimbey E. Prevention and treatment of respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza viruses in immunocompromised patients. Am J Med 1997;102:61–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    McClung HW, Knight V, Gilbert BE, Wilson SZ, Quarles JM, Divine GW. Ribavirin aerosol treatment of influenza B virus infection. JAMA 1983;249:2671–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Berger A, Drosten Ch, Doerr HW, Sturmer M, Preiser W. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)—paradigm of an emerging viral infection. J Clin Virol 2004;29:13–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Manocha S, Walley KR, Russell JA. Severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (SARS): a critical care perspective. Crit Care Med 2003;31:2684–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bitar R, Weiser WJ, Avendano M, Derkach P, Low DE, Muradali D. Chest radiographic manifestations of severe acute respiratory syndrome in health care workers: the Toronto experience. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2004;182:45–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Chan MS, Chan IY, Fung KH, Poon E, Yam LY, Lau KY. High-resolution CT findings in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome: a pattern-based approach. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2004;182:49–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Müller NL, Ooi GC, Khong PL, Zhou LJ, Tsang KW, Nicolaou S. High-resolution CT findings of severe acute respiratory syndrome at presentation and after admission. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2004;182:39–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Paul NS, Chung T, Konen E, Roberts HC, Rao TN, Gold WL, Mehta S, Tomlinson GA, Boylan CE, Grossman H, Hong HH, Weisbrod GL. Prognostic significance of the radiographic pattern of disease in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2004;182:493–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Glezen WP, Greenberg SB, Atmar RL, Piedra PA, Couch RB. Impact of respiratory virus infections on persons with chronic underlying conditions. JAMA 2000;283:499–505.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Greenberg SB, Atmar RL. “Chronic airway disease: The infection connection.” In: Transactions of The American Clinical and Climatological Association 1999;Vol.CX: pp. 38–50.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Greenberg SB, Allen M, Wilson J, Atmar RL. Respiratory viral infections in adults with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000;162:167–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Atmar RL, Guy E, Guntupalli KK, Zimmerman JL, Bandi VD, Baxter BD, Greenberg SB. Respiratory tract viral infections in inner-city asthmatic adults. Arch Intern Med 1998;158:2453–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Tokat O, Kelebek N, Turker G, Kahveci SF, Ozcan B. Intravenous immunoglobulin in adult varicella pneumonia complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome. J Int Med Res 2001;29:252–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Triebwasser JH, Harris RE, Bryant RE, Rhoades ER. Varicella pneumonia in adults. Report of seven cases and a review of literature. Medicine (Baltimore) 1967;46:409–23.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Tuxen DV, Wilson JW, Cade JF. Prevention of lower respiratory herpes simplex virus infection with acyclovir in patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Am Rev Respir Dis 1987; 136:402–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hawes S, Seabolt JP. Hantavirus. Clin Lab Sci. 2003;16:39–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Khan A, Khan AS. Hantaviruses: a tale of two hemispheres. Panminerva Med 2003;45:43–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lednicky JA. Hantaviruses. a short review. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2003; 127:30–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Howard MJ, Doyle TJ, Koster FT, Zaki SR, Khan AS, Petersen EA, Peters CJ, Bryan RT. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in pregnancy. Clin Infect Dis 1999;29:1538–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Moolenaar RL, Dalton C, Lipman HB, Umland ET, Gallaher M, Duchin JS, Chapman L, Zaki SR, Ksiazek TG, Rollin PE, et al. Clinical features that differentiate hantavirus pulmonary syndrome from three other acute respiratory illnesses. Clin Infect Dis 1995;21:643–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kuwabara S. Guillain-Barre syndrome: epidemiology, pathophysiology and management. Drugs 2004;64:597–610.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Solomon T, Willison H. Infectious causes of acute flaccid paralysis. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2003;16:375–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Jacobs BC, Rothbarth PH, van der Meche FG, Herbrink P, Schmitz PI, de Klerk MA, van Doom PA. The spectrum of antecedent infections in Guillain-Barre syndrome: a case-control study. Neurology. 1998;51:1110–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ray G, Ghosh B, Bhattacharyya R. Acute hepatitis B presenting as Guillain-Barre syndrome. Indian J Gastroenterol 2003;22:228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Steininger C, Popow-Kraupp T, Seiser A, Gueler N, Stanek G, Puchhammer E. Presence of cytomegalovirus in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome. J Infect Dis 2004; 189:984–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Chroni E, Thomopoulos C, Papapetropoulos S, Paschalis C, Karatza CL. A case of relapsing Guillain-Barre syndrome associated with exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B virus hepatitis. J Neurovirol 2003;9:408–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Laurenti L, Garzia M, Sabatelli M, Piccioni P, Sora’ F, Leone G. Guillain-Barre’ syndrome following Varicella zoster reactivation in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia treated with fludarabine. Haematologica 2002;87:ECR33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Pavone P, Maccarrone F, Sorge A, Piccolo G, Greco F, Caruso P, Sorge G. Guillain-Barre syndrome after varicella zoster virus infections. A case report. Minerva Pediatr 2002;54:259–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Roccatagliata L, Uccelli A, Murialdo A. Guillain-Barre syndrome after reactivation of varicella-zoster virus. N Engl J Med 2001;344:65–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lacaille F, Zylberberg H, Hagege H, Roualdes B, Meyrignac C, Chousterman M, Girot R. Hepatitis C associated with Guillain-Barre syndrome. Liver 1998;18:49–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    da Rosa-Santos OL, Moreira AM, Golfetto CA, Maceira JP, Ramos-e-Silva M. Guillain-Barre syndrome associated with varicella-zoster infection. Int J Dermatol 1996;35:603–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Ormerod IE, Cockerell OC. Guillain-Barre syndrome after herpes zoster infection: a report of 2 cases. Eur Neurol 1993;33:156–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Safranek TJ, Lawrence DN, Kurland LT, Culver DH, Wiederholt WC, Hayner NS, Osterholm MT, O’Brien P, Hughes JM. Reassessment of the association between Guillain-Barre syndrome and receipt of swine influenza vaccine in 1976-1977: results of a two-state study. Expert Neurology Group. Am J Epidemiol 1991;133:940–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Atkins MC, Esmonde TF. Guillain-Barre syndrome associated with rubella. Postgrad Med J 1991;67:375–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Rabaud C, May T, Hoen B, Maignan M, Gerard A, Canton P. Guillain-Barre syndrome associated with hantavirus infection. Clin Infect Dis 1995;20:477–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Esack A, Teelucksingh S, Singh N. The Guillain-Barre syndrome following dengue fever. West Indian Med J 1999;48:36–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Minohara Y, Koitabashi Y, Kato T, Nakajima N, Murakami H, Masaki H, Ishiko H. A case of Guillain-Barre syndrome associated with human parvovirus B19 infection. J Infect 1998;36:327–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Ahmed S, Libman R, Wesson K, Ahmed F, Einberg K. Guillain-Barre syndrome: An unusual presentation of West Nile virus infection. Neurology 2000;55:144–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Winer JB. Guillain Barre syndrome. Mol Pathol 2001;54:381–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Dec GW Jr, Waldman H, Southern J, Fallon JT, Hutter AM Jr, Palacios I. Viral myocarditis mimicking acute myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol 1992;20:85–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Maisch B, Ristic AD, Portig I, Pankuweit S. Human viral cardiomyopathy. Front Biosci 2003;8:s39–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Angelini A, Calzolari V, Calabrese F, Boffa GM, Maddalena F, Chioin R, Thiene G. Myocarditis mimicking acute myocardial infarction: role of endomyocardial biopsy in the differential diagnosis. Heart 2000;84:245–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Bowles NE, Richardson PJ, Olsen EG, Archard LC. Detection of Coxsackie-B-virus-specific RNA sequences in myocardial biopsy samples from patients with myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy. Lancet 1986;1:1120–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Bultmann BD, Klingel K, Sotlar K, Bock CT, Baba HA, Sauter M, Kandolf R. Fatal parvovirus B19-associated myocarditis clinically mimicking ischemic heart disease: an endothelial cell-mediated disease. Hum Pathol 2003;34:92–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Galrinho A, Tavares J, Caria R, Veiga C. Myocarditis due to influenza virus complicated by intravascular coagulopathy. Rev Port Cardiol 2000;19:835–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Greaves K, Oxford JS, Price CP, Clarke GH, Crake T. The prevalence of myocarditis and skeletal muscle injury during acute viral infection in adults: measurement of cardiac troponins I and T in 152 patients with acute influenza infection. Arch Intern Med 2003;163:165–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kuhl U, Pauschinger M, Bock T, Klingel K, Schwimmbeck CP, Seeberg B, Krautwurm L, Poller W, Schultheiss HP, Kandolf R. Parvovirus B19 infection mimicking acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 2003;108:945–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    McGregor D, Henderson S. Myocarditis, rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuric renal failure complicating influenza in a young adult. N Z Med J 1997;110:237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Onitsuka H, Imamura T, Miyamoto N, Shibata Y, Kashiwagi T, Ayabe T, Kawagoe J, Matsuda J, Ishikawa T, Unoki T, Takenaga M, Fukunaga T, Nakagawa S, Koiwaya Y, Eto T.Clinical manifestations of influenza a myocarditis during the influenza epidemic of winter 1998-1999. J Cardiol 2001;37:315–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Orth T, Herr W, Spahn T, Voigtlander T, Michel D, Mertens T, Mayet WJ, Dippold W, Meyer zum Buschenfelde KH. Human parvovirus B19 infection associated with severe acute perimyocarditis in a 34-year-old man. Eur Heart J 1997;18:524–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Castleberry JS, Mahon CR. Dengue fever in the Western Hemisphere. Clin Lab Sci 2003;16:34–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Guzman MG, Kouri G. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in the Americas: lessons and challenges. J Clin Virol 2003;27:1–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Halstead SB. Dengue. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2002;15:471–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Gear JS, Cassel GA, Gear AJ, Trappler B, Clausen L, Meyers AM, Kew MC, Bothwell TH, Sher R, Miller GB, Schneider J, Koornhof HJ, Gomperts ED, Isaacson M, Gear JH. Outbreak of Marburg virus disease in Johannesburg. Br Med J 1975;4:489–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Heymann DL, Barakamfitiye D, Szczeniowski M, Muyembe-Tamfum JJ, Bele O, Rodier G. Ebola hemorrhagic fever: lessons from Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo. J Infect Dis 1999;179Suppl 1:S283–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Richards GA, Murphy S, Jobson R, Mer M, Zinman C, Taylor R, Swanepoel R, Duse A, Sharp G, De La Rey IC, Kassianides C.Unexpected Ebola virus in a tertiary setting: clinical and epidemiologic aspects. Crit Care Med 2000;28:240–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Srichaikul T, Nimmannitya S. Haematology in dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever. Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 2000; 13:261–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Edelen JS, Bender TR, Chin TD.Encephalopathy and pericarditis during an outbreak of influenza. Am J Epidemiol 1974;100:79–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kennedy PG. Viral encephalitis: causes, differential diagnosis, and management. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2004;75Suppl 1:i10–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    McCarthy M. Newer viral encephalitides. Neurologist 2003;9:189–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Studahl M. Influenza virus and CNS manifestations. J Clin Virol. 2003;28:225–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Johnson RT. Emerging viral infections of the nervous system. J Neurovirol 2003;9:140–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Whitley RJ, Cobbs CO, Alford CA Jr, Soong SJ, Hirsch MS, Connor JD, Corey L, Hanley DF, Levin M, Powell DA. Diseases that mimic herpes simplex encephalitis. Diagnosis, presentation, and outcome. NIAD Collaborative Antiviral Study Group. JAMA 1989;262:234–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Campbell GL, Marfin AA, Lanciotti RS, Gubler DJ. West Nile virus. Lancet Infect Dis 2002;2:519–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Cushing MM, Brat DJ, Mosunjac MI, Hennigar RA, Jernigan DB, Lanciotti R, Petersen LR, Goldsmith C, Rollin PE, Shieh WJ, Guarner J, Zaki SR. Fatal West Nile virus encephalitis in a renal transplant recipient. Am J Clin Pathol 2004;121:26–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). First human death associated with raccoon rabies—Virginia, 2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2003;52:1102–3.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Human death associated with bat rabies—California, 2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2004;53:33–5.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Lakeman FD, Koga J, Whitley RJ. Detection of antigen to herpes simplex virus in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with herpes simplex encephalitis. J Infect Dis 1987;155:1172–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Emig M, Apple DJ. Severe West Nile virus disease in healthy adults. Clin Infect Dis 2004;38:289–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Petersen LR, Marfin AA. West Nile virus: a primer for the clinician. Ann Intern Med 2002;137:173–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Roehrig JT, Layton M, Smith P, Campbell GL, Nasci R, Lanciotti RS. The emergence of West Nile virus in North America: ecology, epidemiology, and surveillance. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2002;267:223–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Sampathkumar P. West Nile virus: epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and prevention. Mayo Clin Proc 2003;78:1137–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Jeha LE, Sila CA, Lederman RJ, Prayson RA, Isada CM, Gordon SM. West Nile virus infection: a new acute paralytic illness. Neurology 2003;61:55–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Kelley TW, Prayson RA, Ruiz AI, Isada CM, Gordon SM. The neuropathology of West Nile virus meningoencephalitis. A report of two cases and review of the literature. Am J Clin Pathol 2003;119:749–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Solomon T, Willison H. Infectious causes of acute flaccid paralysis. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2003;16:375–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Jemsek J, Greenberg SB, Taber L, Harvey D, Gershon A, Couch RB. Herpes zoster-associated encephalitis: clinicopathologic report of 12 cases and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore) 1983;62:81–97.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Nakano A, Yamasaki R, Miyazaki S, Horiuchi N, Kunishige M, Mitsui T. Beneficial effect of steroid pulse therapy on acute viral encephalitis. Eur Neurol 2003;50:225–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Fagan EA, Williams R. Fulminant viral hepatitis. Br Med Bull 1990;46:462–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Rezende G, Roque-Afonso AM, Samuel D, Gigou M, Nicand E, Ferre V, Dussaix E, Bismuth H, Feray C. Viral and clinical factors associated with the fulminant course of hepatitis A infection. Hepatology 2003;38:613–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Tillmann HL, Wedemeyer H, Manns MP. Treatment of hepatitis B in special patient groups: hemodialysis, heart and renal transplant, fulminant hepatitis, hepatitis B virus reactivation. J Hepatol 2003;39:S206–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Schiodt FV, Davern TJ, Shakil AO, McGuire B, Samuel G, Lee WM. Viral hepatitis-related acute liver failure. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003;98:448–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Anderson DR, Schwartz J, Hunter NJ, Cottrill C, Bisaccia E, Klainer AS. Varicella hepatitis: a fatal case in a previously healthy, immunocompetent adult. Report of a case, autopsy, and review of the literature. Arch Intern Med 1994;154:2101–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Anuras S, Summers R. Fulminant herpes simplex hepatitis in an adult: report of a case in renal transplant recipient. Gastroenterology 1976;70:425–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Kusne S, Schwartz M, Breinig MK, Dummer JS, Lee RE, Selby R, Starzl TE, Simmons RL, Ho M. Herpes simplex virus hepatitis after solid organ transplantation in adults. J Infect Dis 1991;163:1001–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Harma M, Hockerstedt K, Lautenschlager I. Human herpesvirus-6 and acute liver failure. Transplantation. 2003;76:536–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Pesik NT, Otten EJ. Severe rhabdomyolysis following a viral illness: a case report and review of the literature. J Emerg Med 1996;14:425–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Singh U, Scheld WM. Infectious etiologies of rhabdomyolysis: three case reports and review. Clin Infect Dis 1996;22:642–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Leebeek FW, Baggen MG, Mulder LJ, Dingemans-Dumas AM. Rhabdomyolysis associated with influenza A virus infection. Neth J Med 1995;46:189–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Seibold S, Merkel F, Weber M, Marx M. Rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure in an adult with measles virus infection. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1998;13:1829–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Annerstedt M, Herlitz H, Molne J, Oldfors A, Westberg G. Rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure associated with influenza virus type A. Scand J Urol Nephrol 1999;33:260–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Berry L, Braude S. Influenza A infection with rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure—a potentially fatal complication. Postgrad Med J 1991;67:389–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Cunningham E, Kohli R, Venuto RC. Influenza-associated myoglobinuric renal failure. JAMA 1979;242:2428–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Fodili F, van Bommel EF. Severe rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure following recent Coxsackie B virus infection. Neth J Med 2003;61:177–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Hollenstein U, Thalhammer F, Burgmann H. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and rhabdomyolysis in fulminant varicella infection-case report and review of the literature. Infection 1998;26:306–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Josselson J, Pula T, Sadler JH. Acute rhabdomyolysis associated with an echovirus 9 infection. Arch Intern Med 1980;140:1671–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Kantor RJ, Norden CW, Wein TP. Infectious mononucleosis associated with rhabdomyolysis and renal failure. South Med J 1978;71:346–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Marinella MA. Exertional rhabdomyolysis after recent coxsackie B virus infection. South Med J 1998;91:1057–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    McCabe JL, Duckett S, Kaplan P. Epstein-Barr virus infection complicated by acute rhabdomyolysis. Am J Emerg Med 1988;6:453–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Morton SE, Mathai M, Byrd RP Jr, Fields CL, Roy TM. Influenza A pneumonia with rhabdomyolysis. South Med J 2001;94:67–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Nozoe M, Iino T, Nagafuji K, Miyamoto T, Ito H, Gondo H, Harada M. Influenza-induced rhabdomyolysis after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for malignant lymphoma. Intern Med 2003;42:1127–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Osamah H, Finkelstein R, Brook JG. Rhabdomyolysis complicating acute Epstein-Barr virus infection. Infection 1995;23:119–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Pratt RD, Bradley JS, Loubert C, LaRocco A Jr, McNeal RM, Newbury RO, Sawyer MH. Rhabdomyolysis associated with acute varicella infection. Clin Infect Dis 1995;20:450–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Shenouda A, Hatch FE. Influenza A viral infection associated with acute renal failure. Am J Med 1976;61:697–702.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Tanaka T, Takada T, Takagi D, Takeyama N, Kitazawa Y. Acute renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis associated with echovirus 9 infection: a case report and review of literature. Jpn J Med 1989;28:237–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Ueda K, Robbins DA, Iitaka K, Linnemann CC Jr. Fatal rhabdomyolysis associated with parainfluenza type 3 infection. Hiroshima J Med Sci 1978;27:99–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Wakabayashi Y, Nakano T, Kikuno T, Ohwada T, Kikawada R. Massive rhabdomyolysis associated with influenza A infection. Intern Med 1994;33:450–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Wright J, Couchonnal G, Hodges GR. Adenovirus type 21 infection. Occurrence with pneumonia, rhabdomyolysis, and myoglobinuria in an adult. JAMA 1979;241:2420–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Yamada H, Ono T, Kimura M. Rhabdomyolysis in adults with measles virus infection. Am J Med 2000;108:600.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Yoshino M, Suzuki S, Adachi K, Fukayama M, Inamatsu T. High incidence of acute myositis with type A influenza virus infection in the elderly. Intern Med 2000;39:431–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Alvares-Da-Silva MR, Francisconi CF, Waechter FL. Acute hepatitis C complicated by pancreatitis: another extrahepatic manifestation of hepatitis C virus? J Viral Hepat 2000;7:84–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Cavallari A, Vivarelli M, D’Errico A, Bellusci R, Scarani P, DeRaffele E, Nardo B, Gozzetti G. Fatal necrotizing pancreatitis caused by hepatitis B virus infection in a liver transplant recipient. J Hepatol 1995;22:685–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    de Oliveira LC, Rezende PB, Ferreira AL, de Freitas AA, de Carvalho AM, Guedes CA, Costa WO. Concurrent acute hepatitis and pancreatitis associated with hepatitis B virus: case report. Pancreas 1998;16:559–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Ikura Y, Matsuo T, Ogami M, Yamazaki S, Okamura M, Yoshikawa J, Ueda M. Cytomegalovirus associated pancreatitis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol 2000;27:2715–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Khanna S, Vij JC. Severe acute pancreatitis due to hepatitis A virus infection in a patient of acute viral hepatitis. Trop Gastroenterol 2003;24:25–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Majumder AK, Halder A, Talapatra DS, Bhaduri S. Hepatitis E associated with acute pancreatitis with pseudocyst. J Assoc Physicians India 1999;47:1207–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Shintaku M, Umehara Y, Iwaisako K, Tahara M, Adachi Y. Herpes simplex pancreatitis. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2003; 127:231–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Suskovic T, Vukicevic-Baudoin D, Vucicevic Z, Holjevac I. Severe pancreatitis as first symptom of mumps complicated with pseudocyst and abscess of pancreas. Infection 1997;25:39–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Yuen MF, Chan TM, Hui CK, Chan AO, Ng IO, Lai CL. Acute pancreatitis complicating acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B infection carries a poor prognosis. J Viral Hepat 2001;8:459–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Crupi RS, Asnis DS, Lee CC, Santucci T, Marino MJ, Flanz BJ. Meeting the challenge of bioterrorism: lessons learned from West Nile virus and anthrax. Am J Emerg Med 2003;21:77–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Karwa M, Bronzert P, Kvetan V. Bioterrorism and critical care. Crit Care Clin 2003;19:279–313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Han MH, Zunt JR. Bioterrorism and the nervous system. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2003;3:476–82.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Henderson DA, Inglesby TV, Bartlett JG, Ascher MS, Eitzen E, Jahrling PB, Hauer J, Layton M, McDade J, Osterholm MT, O’Toole T, Parker G, Perl T, Russell PK, Tonat K. Smallpox as a biological weapon: medical and public health management. Working Group on Civilian Biodefense. JAMA 1999;281:2127–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Pennington H. Smallpox and bioterrorism. Bull World Health Organ 2003;81:762–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Breman JG, Henderson DA. Diagnosis and management of smallpox. N Engl J Med 2002;346:1300–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Nuovo GJ, Plaza JA, Magro C. Rapid diagnosis of smallpox infection and differentiation from its mimics. Diagn Mol Pathol 2003;12:103–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Baker RO, Bray M, Huggins JW. Potential antiviral therapeutics for smallpox, monkeypox and other orthopoxvirus infections. Antiviral Res 2003;57:13–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Safrin S, Cherrington J, Jaffe HS. Cidofovir. Review of current and potential clinical uses. Adv Exp Med Biol 1999;458:111–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Frey SE, Couch RB, Tacket CO, Treanor JJ, Wolff M, Newman FK, Atmar RL, Edelman R, Nolan CM, Belshe RB; National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Smallpox Vaccine Study Group. Clinical responses to undiluted and diluted smallpox vaccine. N Engl J Med 2002;346:1265–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Bausch DG, Ksiazek TG. Viral hemorrhagic fevers including hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the Americas. Clin Lab Med 2002;22:981–1020.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Bourdarias B, Perro G, Cutillas M, Castede JC, Lafon ME, Sanchez R. Herpes simplex virus infection in burned patients: epidemiology of 11 cases. Burns 1996;22:287–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Byers RJ, Hasleton PS, Quigley A, Dennett C, Klapper PE, Cleator GM, Faragher EB. Pulmonary herpes simplex in burns patients. Eur Respir J 1996;9:2313–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Foley FD, Greenawald KA, Nash G, Pruitt BA Jr. Herpesvirus infection in burned patients. N Engl J Med 1970;282:652–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Brandt SJ, Tribble CG, Lakeman AD, Hayden FG. Herpes simplex burn wound infections: epidemiology of a case cluster and responses to acyclovir therapy. Surgery 1985;98:338–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Cherr GS, Meredith JW, Chang M. Herpes simplex virus pneumonia in trauma patients. J Trauma 2000;49:547–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Fidler PE, Mackool BT, Schoenfeld DA, Malloy M, Schulz JT 3rd, Sheridan RL, Ryan CM. Incidence, outcome, and long-term consequences of herpes simplex virus type 1 reactivation presenting as a facial rash in intubated adult burn patients treated with acyclovir. J Trauma. 2002;53:86–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Sheridan RL, Schulz JT, Weber JM, Ryan CM, Pasternack MS, Tompkins RG. Cutaneous herpetic infections complicating burns. Burns 2000;26:621–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Sherry MK, Klainer AS, Wolff M, Gerhard H. Herpetic tracheobronchitis. Ann Intern Med 1988;109:229–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Jacobs F, Knoop C, Brancart F, Gilot P, Melot C, Byl B, Delforge ML, Estenne M, Liesnard C; Brussels Heart and Lung Transplantation Group. Human herpesvirus-6 infection after lung and heart-lung transplantation: a prospective longitudinal study. Transplantation. 2003;75:1996–2001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Prellner T, Flamholc L, Haidl S, Lindholm K, Widell A. Herpes simplex virus—the most frequently isolated pathogen in the lungs of patients with severe respiratory distress. Scand J Infect Dis 1992;24:283–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Ong GM, Lowry K, Mahajan S, Wyatt DE, Simpson C, O’Neill HJ, McCaughey C, Coyle PV. Herpes simplex type 1 shedding is associated with reduced hospital survival in patients receiving assisted ventilation in a tertiary referral intensive care unit. J Med Virol 2004;72:121–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Bruynseels P, Jorens PG, Demey HE, Goossens H, Pattyn SR, Elseviers MM, Weyler J, Bossaert LL, Mentens Y, Ieven M. Herpes simplex virus in the respiratory tract of critical care patients: a prospective study. Lancet 2003;362:1536–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Camps K, Jorens PG, Demey HE, Pattyn SR, Ieven M. Clinical significance of herpes simplex virus in the lower respiratory tract of critically ill patients. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2002;21:758–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Schuller D. Lower respiratory tract reactivation of herpes simplex virus. Comparison of immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts. Chest. 1994;106:3S–7S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Cook CH, Martin LC, Yenchar JK, Lahm MC, McGuinness B, Davies EA, Ferguson RM. Occult herpes family viral infections are endemic in critically ill surgical patients. Crit Care Med 2003;31:1923–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Cook CH, Yenchar JK, Kraner TO, Davies EA, Ferguson RM. Occult herpes family viruses may increase mortality in critically ill surgical patients. Am J Surg 1998;176:357–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Konoplev S, Champlin RE, Giralt S, Ueno NT, Khouri I, Raad I, Rolston K, Jacobson K, Tarrand J, Luna M, Nguyen Q, Whimbey E. Cytomegalovirus pneumonia in adult autologous blood and marrow transplant recipients. Bone Marrow Transplant 2001;27:877–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Ie S, Rubio ER, Alper B, Szerlip HM. Respiratory complications of pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2002;57:39–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Lim WS, Macfarlane JT, Colthorpe CL. Treatment of community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections during pregnancy. Am J Respir Med 2003;2:221–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Atmar RL, Englund JA, Hammill H. Complications of measles during pregnancy. Clin Infect Dis 1992; 14:217–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Maupin RT. Obstetric infectious disease emergencies. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2002;45:393–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    McKinney WP, Volkert P, Kaufman J. Fatal swine influenza pneumonia during late pregnancy. Arch Intern Med. 1990;150:213–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Rodrigues J, Niederman MS. Pneumonia complicating pregnancy. Clin Chest Med. 1992;13:679–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    McCarter-Spaulding DE. Varicella infection in pregnancy. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2001;30:667–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Broussard RC, Payne DK, George RB. Treatment with acyclovir of varicella pneumonia in pregnancy. Chest 1991;99:1045–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Money DM. Antiviral and antiretroviral use in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2003;30:731–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Smego RA Jr, Asperilla MO. Use of acyclovir for varicella pneumonia during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1991;78:1112–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Chapman SJ. Varicella in pregnancy. Semin Perinatol. 1998;22:339–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Desselberger U. Herpes simplex virus infection in pregnancy: diagnosis and significance. Intervirology 1998;41:185–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Frederick DM, Bland D, Gollin Y. Fatal disseminated herpes simplex virus infection in a previously healthy pregnant woman. A case report. J Reprod Med 2002;47:591–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Kang AH, Graves CR. Herpes simplex hepatitis in pregnancy: a case report and review of the literature. Obstet Gynecol Surv 1999;54:463–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Baker DA. Issues and management of herpes in pregnancy. Int J Fertil Womens Med. 2002;47:129–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Godet C, Beby-Defaux A, Agius G, Pourrat O, Robert R. Maternal Herpes simplex virus type 2 encephalitis following Cesarean section. J Infect. 2003;47:174–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Suarez VR, Hankins GD. Smallpox and pregnancy: from eradicated disease to bioterrorist threat. Obstet Gynecol. 2002;100:87–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Kojaoghlanian T, Flomenberg P, Horwitz MS. The impact of adenovirus infection on the immunocompromised host. Rev Med Virol. 2003;13:155–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Meijer E, Boland GJ, Verdonck LF. Prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplants. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2003;16:647–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Middeldorp JM. Molecular diagnosis of viral infections in renal transplant recipients. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2002; 11:665–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Wang WH, Wang HL. Fulminant adenovirus hepatitis following bone marrow transplantation. A case report and brief review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2003;127:e246–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Waser M, Maggiorini M, Luthy A, Laske A, von Segesser L, Mohacsi P, Opravil M, Turina M, Follath F, Gallino A. Infectious complications in 100 consecutive heart transplant recipients. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1994;13:12–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Wiesner RH, Rakela J, Ishitani MB, Mulligan DC, Spivey JR, Steers JL, Krom RA. Recent advances in liver transplantation. Mayo Clin Proc. 2003;78:197–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Nicholson V, Johnson PC. Infectious complications in solid organ transplant recipients. Surg Clin North Am. 1994;74:1223–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Rubin RH. The direct and indirect effects of infection in liver transplantation: pathogenesis, impact, and clinical management. Curr Clin Top Infect Dis 2002;22:125–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Alexander BD, Tapson VF. Infectious complications of lung transplantation. Transpl Infect Dis 2001;3:128–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Cavallo R, Merlino C, Re D, Bollero C, Bergallo M, Lembo D, Musso T, Leonardi G, Segoloni GP, Ponzi AN. B19 virus infection in renal transplant recipients. J Clin Virol 2003;26:361–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Wendt CH, Hertz MI. Respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus infections in the immunocompromised host. Semin Respir Infect 1995;10:224–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Wendt CH, Weisdorf DJ, Jordan MC, Balfour HH Jr, Hertz MI. Parainfluenza virus respiratory infection after bone marrow transplantation. N Engl J Med 1992;326:921–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Whimbey E, Elting LS, Couch RB, Lo W, Williams L, Champlin RE, Bodey GP. Influenza A virus infections among hospitalized adult bone marrow transplant recipients. Bone Marrow Transplant 1994;13:437–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Win N, Mitchell D, Pugh S, Russell NH. Successful therapy with ribavirin of late onset respiratory syncytial virus pneumonitis complicating allogeneic bone transplantation. Clin Lab Haematol 1992; 14:29–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Harrington RD, Hooton TM, Hackman RC, Storch GA, Osborne B, Gleaves CA, Benson A, Meyers JD. An outbreak of respiratory syncytial virus in a bone marrow transplant center. J Infect Dis 1992; 165:987–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Lewis VA, Champlin R, Englund J, Couch R, Goodrich JM, Rolston K, Przepiorka D, Mirza NQ, Yousuf HM, Luna M, Bodey GP, Whimbey E. Respiratory disease due to parainfluenza virus in adult bone marrow transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis 1996;23:1033–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Morales R, Kirkpatrick M, Browne B, Emovon O. Respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia in an adult renal transplant patient: an unexpected nosocomial infection. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2003;24:548–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Ohori NP, Michaels MG, Jaffe R, Williams P, Yousem SA. Adenovirus pneumonia in lung transplant recipients. Hum Pathol 1995;426:1073–9.Google Scholar
  224. 224.
    Peigue-Lafeuille H, Gazuy N, Mignot P, Deteix P, Beytout D, Baguet JC. Severe respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia in an adult renal transplant recipient: successful treatment with ribavirin. Scand J Infect Dis 1990;22:87–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Nichols WG, Corey L, Gooley T, Davis C, Boeckh M. Parainfluenza virus infections after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: risk factors, response to antiviral therapy, and effect on transplant outcome. Blood 2001;98:573–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Nichols WG, Gooley T, Boeckh M. Community-acquired respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus infections after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center experience. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2001;7Suppl:11S–15S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Small TN, Casson A, Malak SF, Boulad F, Kiehn TE, Stiles J, Ushay HM, Sepkowitz KA. Respiratory syncytial virus infection following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 2002;29:321–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Cane PA, van den Hoogen BG, Chakrabarti S, Fegan CD, Osterhaus AD. Human metapneumovirus in a haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipient with fatal lower respiratory tract disease. Bone Marrow Transplant 2003;31:309–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Kahn JS. Human metapneumovirus: a newly emerging respiratory pathogen. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2003;16:255–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Ghosh S, Champlin RE, Englund J, Giralt SA, Rolston K, Raad I, Jacobson K, Neumann J, Ippoliti C, Mallik S, Whimbey E. Respiratory syncytial virus upper respiratory tract illnesses in adult blood and marrow transplant recipients: combination therapy with aerosolized ribavirin and intravenous immunoglobulin. Bone Marrow Transplant 2000;25:751–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Ljungman P, Gleaves CA, Meyers JD. Respiratory virus infection in immunocompromised patients. Bone Marrow Transplant 1989;4:35–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Ison MG, Hayden FG. Viral infections in immunocompromised patients: what’s new with respiratory viruses? Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2002;15:355–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Garbino J, Gerbase MW, Wunderli W, Kolarova L, Nicod LP, Rochat T, Kaiser L. Respiratory viruses and severe lower respiratory tract complications in hospitalized patients. Chest. 2004;125:1033–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Vilchez RA, Dauber J, McCurry K, Iacono A, Kusne S. Parainfluenza virus infection in adult lung transplant recipients: an emergent clinical syndrome with implications on allograft function. Am J Transplant. 2003;3:116–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Gray J, Wreghitt TG, Pavel P, Smyth RL, Parameshwar J, Stewart S, Cary N, Large S, Wallwork J. Epstein-Barr virus infection in heart and heart-lung transplant recipients: incidence and clinical impact. J Heart Lung Transplant 1995;14:640–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Parnham AP, Flexman JP, Saker BM, Thatcher GN. Primary varicella in adult renal transplant recipients: a report of three cases plus a review of the literature. Clin Transplant 1995;9:115–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Singh N. Human herpesviruses-6,-7 and-8 in organ transplant recipients. Clin Microbiol Infect 2000;6:453–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Taplitz RA, Jordan MC. Pneumonia caused by herpesviruses in recipients of hematopoietic cell transplants. Semin Respir Infect. 2002;17:121–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Peterson PK, Balfour HH Jr, Marker SC, Fryd DS, Howard RJ, Simmons RL. Cytomegalovirus disease in renal allograft recipients: a prospective study of the clinical features, risk factors and impact on renal transplantation. Medicine (Baltimore) 1980;59:283–300.Google Scholar
  240. 240.
    Sissons JG, Carmichael AJ. Clinical aspects and management of cytomegalovirus infection. J Infect. 2002;44:78–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Ettinger NA, Bailey TC, Trulock EP, Storch GA, Anderson D, Raab S, Spitznagel EL, Dresler C, Cooper JD. Cytomegalovirus infection and pneumonitis. Impact after isolated lung transplantation. Washington University Lung Transplant Group. Am Rev Respir Dis 1993;147:1017–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    de Maar EF, Verschuuren EA, Harmsen MC, The TH, van Son WJ. Pulmonary involvement during cytomegalovirus infection in immunosuppressed patients. Transpl Infect Dis 2003;5:112–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Duncan SR, Grgurich WF, Iacono AT, Burckart GJ, Yousem SA, Paradis IL, Williams PA, Johnson BA, Griffith BP. A comparison of ganciclovir and acyclovir to prevent cytomegalovirus after lung transplantation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994;150:146–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Fishman JA, Doran MT, Volpicelli SA, Cosimi AB, Flood JG, Rubin RH. Dosing of intravenous ganciclovir for the prophylaxis and treatment of cytomegalovirus infection in solid organ transplant recipients. Transplantation 2000;69:389–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Zamora MR. Controversies in lung transplantation: management of cytomegalovirus infections. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2002;21:841–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Emanuel D, Cunningham I, Jules-Ely see K, Brochstein JA, Kernan NA, Laver J, Stover D, White DA, Fels A, Polsky B, et al. Cytomegalovirus pneumonia after bone marrow transplantation successfully treated with the combination of ganciclovir and high-dose intravenous immune globulin. Ann Intern Med 1988;109:777–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Limaye AP. Antiviral resistance in cytomegalovirus: an emerging problem in organ transplant recipients. Semin Respir Infect. 2002;17:265–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Ramsey PS, Ramin KD. Pneumonia in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2001;28:553–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Hebart H, Einsele H. Specific infectious complications after stem cell transplantation. Support Care Cancer. 2004 Feb;12(2):80–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Jenkins FJ, Rowe DT, Rinaldo CR Jr. Herpesvirus infections in organ transplant recipients. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2003;10:1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Reusser P. Challenges and options in the management of viral infections after stem cell transplantation. Support Care Cancer. 2002;10:197–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Hong DS, Jacobson KL, Raad II, de Lima M, Anderlini P, Fuller GN, Ippoliti C, Cool RM, Leeds NE, Narvios A, Han XY, Padula A, Champlin RE, Hosing C. West Nile encephalitis in 2 hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: case series and literature review. Clin Infect Dis 2003;37:1044–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Gouarin S, Vabret A, Gault E, Petitjean J, Regeasse A, de Ligny BH, Freymuth F. Quantitative analysis of HCMV DNA load in whole blood of renal transplant patients using real-time PCR assay. J Clin Virol 2004;29:194–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Greenberg David E. 
    • 1
  • Greenberg Stephen B. 
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Laboratory of Clinical Infectious DiseasesNIAIDBethesdaUSA
  2. 2.Department of MedicineBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Molecular Virology and MicrobiologyBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations