Trace Element Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation—Effect on Milk Trace Elements

  • Bo Lönnerdal


It is evident that mechanisms exist that regulate milk concentrations of trace elements such as iron and zinc, while the transfer of elements like selenium appears unregulated and may be explained by passive diffusion. Increased knowledge of these mechanisms may help us understand the transfer of trace elements into milk in normal conditions, but also help us investigate the lesions behind abnormal transfer of trace elements as well as defects in mammary gland function induced by low trace element status.


Mammary Gland Breast Milk Zinc Deficiency Trace Element Status Trace Element Intake 
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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bo Lönnerdal
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NutritionUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA

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