Advertisement

Pneumonia in Children and Adolescents

  • Elaine E. Wang
  • Herbert Dele Davoes
Chapter
  • 1.1k Downloads

Keywords

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Chlamydia Trachomatis Acute Respiratory Infection Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection Mycoplasma Pneumoniae 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Adler-Shohet, F., & Lieberman, J. M. (1998). Bacterial pneumonia in children. Semin. Pediatr. Infect. Dis., 9, 191–198.Google Scholar
  2. Alexander, E. R., Foy, H. M., Kenny, G. E., Kronmal, R. A., McMahan, R., Clarke, E. R., MacColl, W. A., & Grayston, J. T. (1966). Pneumonia due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae. N. Engl. J. Med., 275, 131–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Asmar, B. I., Slovis, T. L., Reed, J. O., & Dajani, A. S. (1978). Hemophilus influenzae type b pneumonia in 43 children. J. Pediatr., 93, 389–393.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bartlett, J. G., & Finegold, S. M. (1974). Anaerobic infections of the lung and pleural space. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis., 110, 56–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bartlett, J. G., Breiman, R. F., Mandell, L. A., & File, T. M. (1998). Community-acquired pneumonia in adults: guide-lines for management. Clin. Infect. Dis., 26, 811–838.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Beem, M. O., & Saxon, E. M. (1977). Respiratory-tract colonization and a distinctive pneumonia syndrome in infants infected with Chlamydia trachomatis. N. Engl. J. Med., 296, 306–310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beem, M. O., Saxon, E., & Tipple, M. A. (1979). Treatment of chlamydial pneumonia of infancy. Pediatrics, 63, 198–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Berman, S., Simoes, E. A. F., & Lanata, C. (1991). Respiratory rate and pneumonia in infancy. Arch. Dis. Child, 66, 81–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bettenay, F. A. L., de Campo, J. F., & McCrossin, D. B. (1988). Differentiating bacterial from viral pneumonias in children. Pediatr. Radiol., 18, 453–454.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Block, S., Hedrick, J., Hammerschlag, M. R., Cassell, G. H., & Craft, J. C. (1995). Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae in pediatric community-acquired pneumonia: comparative efficacy and safety of clarithromycinvs. erythromycin ethylsuccinate. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 14, 471–477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Boutin, C., Astoul, P., & Seitz, B. (1990). The role of thorascopy in the evaluation and management of pleural effusions. Lung, 168, 1113–1121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bradley, J. S., Kaplan, S. L., Klugman, K. P., & Leggiardo, R. J. (1995). Consensus: Management of infections in children caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae with decreased susceptibility to penicillin. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 14, 1037–1041.Google Scholar
  13. Brady, M. T. (1989). Nosocomial Legionnaires’ disease in a children’s hospital. J. Pediatr., 115, 46–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Cham, C. W., Haq, S. M., & Rahamim, J. (1993). Empyema thoracis: a problem with late referral? Thorax, 48, 925–927.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chartrand, S. A., & McCracken, G. H. (1982). Staphylococcal pneumonia in infants and children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis., 1, 19–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Claesson, B. A., Trollfors, B., Brolin, I., Granstrom, M., Henrichsen, J., Jodal, U., Juto, P., Kallings, I., Kanclerski, K., Lagergard, T., Steinwall, L., & Strannegard, O. (1989). Etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in children based on antibody responses to bacterial and viral antigens. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 8, 856–862.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Combs, D. L., O’Brien, R. J., & Geiter, L. J. (1990). USPHS tuberculosis short-course chemotherapy trial 21: effectiveness, toxicity, and acceptability. The report of final results. Ann. Intern. Med., 112, 397–406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Davies, H. D., Matlow, A., Petric, M., Glazier, R., & Wang, E. E. L. (1996a). Prospective comparative study of viral, bacterial, and atypical agents identified in pneumonia and bronchiolitis in hospitalized Canadian infants. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 15, 371–375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Davies, H. O., Wang, E. E. L., Manson, D., Babyn, P., & Schuckett, B. (1996b). The chest radiograph in diagnosing pneumonia in young infants. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 15, 600–604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. de la Rocha, A. G. (1982). Empyema thoracis. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet., 155, 839–845.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Denny, F. W., & Clyde, W. A. (1986). Acute lower respiratory tract infections in nonhospitalized children. J. Pediatr., 108, 635–646.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Denny, F. W., Clyde, W. A., & Glezen, W. P. (1971). Mycoplasma pneumoniae disease: Clinical spectrum, pathophysiology, epidemiology, and control. J. Infect. Dis., 123, 74–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Dowell, S. F., Papic, Z., Bresee, J. S., Larranaga, C., Mendez, M., Sowell, A. L., Gary, H. E., Anderson, L. J., & Avendano, L. F. (1996). Treatment of respiratory syncytial virus infection with vitamin A: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in Santiago, Chile. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 15, 782–786.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Fajardo, J. E., & Chang, M. J. (1987). Pleural empyema in children: a nationwide retrospective study. South Med. J., 80, 593–596.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Fang, G. D., Fine, M., Orloff, J., Arisumi, D., Yu, V. L., Kapoor, W., Grayston, J. T., Wang, S. P., Kohler, R., Muder, R. R., Yee, Y. C., Rihs, J. D., & Vickers, R. M. (1990). New and emerging etiologies for community-acquired pneumonia with implications for therapy. A prospective multicenter study of 359 cases. Medicine, 69, 307–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Fine, N. L., Smith, L. R., & Sheedy, P. F. (1970). Frequency of pleural effusions in mycoplasma and viral pneumonias. N. Engl. J. Med., 283, 790–793.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Foy, H. M., Cooney, M. K., Maletzky, A. J., & Grayston, J. T. (1973). Incidence and etiology of pneumonia, croup and bronchiolitis in preschool children belonging to a prepaid medical group over a four-year period. Am. J. Epidemiol., 97, 80–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Godfrey, S., Edwards, R. H. T., Campbell, E. J. M., Armitage, P., & Oppenheimer, E. A. (1969). Repeatability of physical signs in airways obstruction. Thorax, 24, 4–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Grossman, L. K., & Caplan, S. E. (1988). Clinical, laboratory, and radiological information in the diagnosis of pneumonia in children. Ann. Emerg. Med., 17, 43–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Hall, C. B., Hall, W. J., & Speers, D. M. (1979). Clinical and physiological manifestations of bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Outcome of respiratory syncytial virus. Am. J. Dis. Child, 133, 798–802.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Hammerschlag, M. R. (1995). Atypical pneumonias in children. Adv. Pediatr. Infect. Dis., 10, 1–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Harris, J. S., Kolokathis, A., Campbell, M., Cassell, G. H., & Hammerschlag, M. R. (1998). Safety and efficacy of azithromycin in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 17, 865–871.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Harrison, H. R., English, M. G., Lee, C. K., & Alexander, E. R. (1978). Chlamydia trachomatis infant pneumonitis: comparison with matched controls and other infant pneumonitis. N. Engl. J. Med., 298, 702–708.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Heiskanen-Kosma, T., Korppi, M., Jokinen, C., Kurki, S., Heiskanen, L., Juvonen, H., Kallinen, S., Sten, M., Tarkiainen, A., Ronnberg, P.-R., Kleemola, M., Makela, P. H., & Leinonen, M. (1998). Etiology of childhood pneumonia: serologic results of a prospective, population-based study. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 17, 986–991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Henrickson, K. J. (1998). Viral pneumonia in children. Semin. Pediatr. Infect. Dis., 9, 217–233.Google Scholar
  36. Hierholzer, J. C., Bingham, P. G., Coombs, R. A., Johansson, K. H., Anderson, L. J., & Halonen, P. E. (1989). Comparison of monoclonal antibody time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay with monoclonal antibody capture-biotinylated detector enzyme immunoassay for respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus antigen detection. J. Clin. Microbiol., 27, 1243–1249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Hietala, J., Uhari, M., Tuokko, H., & Leinonen, M. (1989). Mixed bacterial and viral infections are common in children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 8, 683–686.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Hoff, S. J., Neblett, W. W., Edwards, K. M., Heller, R. M., Pietsch, J. B., Holcomb, G. W. Jr., & Holcomb G. W. III. (1991). Parapneumonic empyema in children: decortication hastens recovery in patients with severe pleural effusions. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 10, 194–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Isaacs, D. (1989). Problems in determining the etiology of community-acquired childhood pneumonia. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 8, 143–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Isaacs, D., Dickson, H., O’Callaghan, C., Sheaves, R., Winter, A., & Moxon, E. R. (1991). Handwashing and cohorting in prevention of hospital acquired infections with respiratory syncytial virus. Arch. Dis. Child., 66, 227–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Jadavji, T., Law, B., Lebel, M. H., Kennedy, W. A., Gold, R., & Wang, E. E. L. (1997). A practical guide for the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric pneumonia. Can. Med. Assoc. J., 156, S703–S7I1.Google Scholar
  42. Johnston, S. L., & Bloy, H. (1993). Evaluation of a rapid enzyme immunoassay for detection of influenza A virus. J. Clin. Microbiol., 31, 142–143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Kellner, J. D., Ford-Jones, E. L., Matlow, A., Low, D. E., Corey, M., Watson, H., Palmerino, L., & Gold. R. K. (1996). Nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) in children in daycare centres (DCC). New Orleans: ASM, p. 252.Google Scholar
  44. Kenny, G. E., Kaiser, G. G., & Cooney, M. K. (1990). Diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia: sensitivities and specificities of serology with lipid antigen and isolation of the organism in soy peptone medium for identification of infections. J. Clin. Microbiol., 28, 2087–2093.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Kjolhede, C. L., Chew, F. J., Gadomski, A. M., & Marroquin, D. P. (1995). Clinical trial of vitamin A as adjuvant treatment for lower respiratory tract infections. J. Pediatr., 126, 807–812.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Korppi, M., Heiskanen-Kosma, T, Jalonen, E., Saikku, P., Leinonen, M., Halonen, P., & Makela, P. H. (1993a). Aetiology of community-acquired pneumonia in children treated in hospital. Eur. J. Pediatr., 152, 24–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Korppi, M., Kiekara, O., Heiskanen-Kosma, T., & Soimakallio, S. (1993b). Comparison of radiological findings and microbiologic aetiology of childhood pneumonia. Acta Paediatr. Scand., 82, 360–363.Google Scholar
  48. Krasinski, K., LaCouture, R., Holzman, R., Waithe, E., Bonk, S., & Hanna, B. (1990). Screening for respiratory syncytial virus and assignment to a cohort at admission to reduce nosocomial transmission. J. Pediatr., 116, 894–898.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Leventhal, J. M. (1982). Clinical predictors of pneumonia as a guide to ordering chest roentgenograms. Clin. Pediatr., 21, 730–734.Google Scholar
  50. Light, R. W., Girard, W. M., Jenkinson, S. G., & George, R. B. (1980). Parapneumonic effusions. Am. J. Med., 69, 507–512.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Margolis, P. A., Ferkol, T. W., Marsocci, S., Super, D. M., Keyes, L. L., McNutt, R., & Harrell, F. E. (1994). Accuracy of the clinical examination in detecting hypoxemia in infants with respiratory illness. J. Pediatr., 124. 552–560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. McCarthy, P. L., Spiesel, S. Z., Stashwick, C. A., Ablou, R. C., Masters, S. J., & Dolan, T. F. Jr. (1981). Radiographic findings and etiologic diagnosis in ambulatory childhood pneumonias. Clin. Pediatr., 20, 686–691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Murphy, T. F., Henderson, F. W., Clyde, W. A. Jr., Collier, A. M., & Denny, F. W. (1981). Pneumonia: an eleven-year study in a pediatric practice. Am. J. Epidemiol., 113, 12–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Murray, C. J. L., & Lopez, A. D. (1997). Mortality by cause of eight regions of the world: global burden of disease study. Lancet, 349, 1269–1276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Nacul, L. C., Arthur, P., Kirkwood, B. R., Morris, S. S., Cameiro, A. C., & Benjamin, A. F. (1998). The impact of vitamin A supplementation during a pneumonia episode on the subsequent morbidity of children. Trop. Med. Int. Health, 3, 661–666.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Nohynek, H., Eskola, J., Laine, E., Halonen, P., Ruutu, P., Saikku, P., Kleemola, M., & Leinonen, M. (1991). The causes of hospital treated acute lower respiratory tract in-fection in children. Am. J. Dis. Child., 145, 618–622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. O’Brien, K. L., Dowell, S. F, Schwartz, B., Marcy, S. M., Phillips, W. R., & Gerber, M. A. (1998). Cough illness/ bronchitis-principles of judicious use of antimicrobial agents. Pediatrics, 101(Suppl.), 178–181.Google Scholar
  58. Paisley, J., Lauer, B., Mclntosh, K., Glode, M., Schachter, J., & Rumack, C. (1984). Pathogens associated with acute lower respiratory tract infection in young children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis., 3, 14–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Pallares, R., Linares, J., Vadillo, M., Cabellos, C., Manresa, F., Viladrich, P. F., Martin, R., & Gudiol, F. (1995). Resistance to penicillin and cephalosporin and mortality from severe pneumococcal pneumonia in Barcelona, Spain. N. Engl. J. Med., 333, 474–480.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pitkaranta, A., Virolainen, A., Jero, J., Arruda, E., & Hayden, F. G. (1998). Detection of rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and coronavirus infections in acute otitis media by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Pediatrics, 102, 291–295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Randolph, A. G., & Wang, E. E. L. (1996). Ribavirin for respiratory syncytial virus lower respiratory tract infection: a systematic overview. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med., 150, 942–947.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Rapkin, R. H. (1975). Bacteriologic and clinical findings in acute pneumonia of childhood. Clin. Pediatr., 14, 130–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Redd, S. C., Patrick, E., Vreuls, R., Metsing, M., & Moteetee, M. (1994). Comparison of the clinical and radiographic diagnosis of paediatric pneumonia. Trans. Royal Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 88, 307–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ruuskanen, O., Nohynek, H., Ziegler, T., Capeding, R., Rikalainen, H., Huivonen, P., & Leinonen, M. (1992). Pneumonia in childhood: Etiology and response to antimicrobial therapy. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., 11, 217–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Salomon, H. E., Grandien, M., Avila, M. M., Petersson, C. A., & Weissenbacher, M. C. (1989). Comparison of three techniques for detection of respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal aspirates from children with lower acute respiratory infection. J. Med. Virol, 28, 159–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Sawyer, L. A., Fishbein, D. B., & McDade, J. E. (1987). Q fever: current concepts. Rev. Infect. Dis., 9, 935–946.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Schachter, J. (1980). The laboratory and chlamydial infections. Lab. Med., 11, 615–619.Google Scholar
  68. Selwyn, B. J., Board on Science and Technology for International Development of the National Research Council. (1990). The epidemiology of acute respiratory tract infection in young children: comparison of findings from several developing countries. Rev. Infect. Dis., 12, S870–S888.Google Scholar
  69. Seppala, H., Klaukka, T., Vuopio-Varkila, J., Muotiala, A., Helenius, H., Lager, K., Huovinen, P., The Finish Study Group for Antimicrobial Resistance. (1997). The effect of changes in the consumption of macrolide antibiotics on erythromycin resistance in group A streptococci in Finland. N. Engl. J. Med., 337, 441–446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Shann, F., Barker, J., & Poore, P. (1989). Clinical signs that predict death in children with severe pneumonia. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 8, 852–855.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Silverman, M., Bachur, R., & Harper, M. B. (1999). Clinical implications of penicillin and ceftriaxone resistance among children with pneumococcal bacteremia. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 18, 35–41.Google Scholar
  72. Simpson, H., & Flenley, D. C. (1967). Arterial blood-gas tensions and pH in acute lower-respiratory-tract infections in infancy and childhood. Lancet, 1, 7–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Snider, D. E., Graczyk, J., Bek, E., & Rogowski, J. (1984). Supervised six-months treatment of newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis using isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide with and without streptomycin. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis., 130, 1091–1094.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Speert, D. P. (1996). Canadian Pediatric Society Statement: Antimicrobial resistance: implications for therapy of infections with common pediatric pathogens. Can. J. Infect. Dis., 7, 169–173.Google Scholar
  75. Stagno, S., Brasfield, D. M., Brown, M. B., Cassell, G. H., Pifer, L. L., Whitley, R. J., & Tiller, R. E. (1981). Infant pneumonitis associated with cytomegalovirus, chlamydia, pneumocystis, and ureaplasma: a prospective study. Pediatrics, 68, 322–329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Starke, J. R., & Correa, A. G. (1995). Management of mycobacterial infection and disease in children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 14, 455–470.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Straus, W. L., Qazi, S. A., Kundi, Z., Nomani, N. K., & Schwartz, B. (1998). Antimicrobial resistance and clinical effectiveness of co-trimoxazole versus amoxycillin for pneumonia among children in Pakistan: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 352, 270–274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Tan, T. Q., Mason, E. O. Jr., Barson, W. J., Wald, E. R., Schutze, G. E., Bradley, J. S., Arditi, M., Givner, L. B., Yogev, R., Kim, K. S., & Kaplan, S. L. (1998). Clinical characteristics and outcome of children with pneumonia attributable to penicillin-susceptible and penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae. Pediatrics, 102, 1369–1375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Taylor, J. A., Beccaro, M. D., Done, S., & Winters, W. (1995). Establishing clinically relevant standards for tachypnea in febrile children younger than 2 years. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med., 149, 283–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Thiele, G. M., Okano, M., & Purtilo, D. T. (1989). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting anti-bodies in sera of patients with adenovirus infection. J. Virol. Methods, 23, 321–332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Tipple, M. A., Beem, M. O., & Saxon, E. M. (1979). Clinical characteristics of the afebrile pneumonia associated with Chlamydia trachomatis infection in infants less than 6 months of age. Pediatrics, 63, 192–197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Turner, R. B., Lande, A. E., Case, P., Hilton, N., & Weinberg, D. (1987). Pneumonia in pediatric outpatients: cause and clinical manifestations. J. Pediatr., 111, 194–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Vallejo, J., Ong, L. T, & Starke, J. R. (1994). Clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of tuberculosis in infants. Pediatrics, 94, 941–947.Google Scholar
  84. Vuori, E., & Peltola, H. (1998). What is the true cause of childhood pneumonia? A worldwide analysis of the lung tap data, November 13–14. Denver, CO.Google Scholar
  85. Wald, E. (1990). Recurrent pneumonia in children. Adv. Pediatr. Infect. Dis., 5, 183–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Wang, E. E. L., & Law, B. J. (1998). Respiratory syncytial virus infection in pediatric patients. Semin. Pediatr. Infect. Dis., 9, 146–153.Google Scholar
  87. Wang, E. E. L., Milner, R. A., Navas, L., & Maj, H. (1992). Observer agreement for respiratory signs and oximetry in infants hospitalized with lower respiratory infections. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis., 145, 106–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Wang, E. E. L., Law, B. J., Stephens, D., Langley, J., MacDonald, N., Robinson, J., Dobson, S., McDonald, J., Boucher, F., & de Carvalho, V. (1996). Pediatric Investigators Collaborative Network on Infections in Canada (PICNIC) study of interobserver reliability in clinical assessment of RSV lower respiratory illness. Pediatr. Pulmonol, 22, 23–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Weis, S. E., Slocum, P. C., Blais, F. X., King, B., Nunn, M., Matney, G. B., Gomez, E., & Forseman, B. H. (1994). The effect of directly observedtherapy on the rates of drug resistance and relapse in tuberculosis. N. Engl. J. Med., 330, 1179–1184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. World Health Organization. (1984). Programme for the control of acute respiratory infections. Case management of acute respiratory infections in children in developing countries. Report of a working group meeting. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Report no. WHO/RSD/85.15.Google Scholar
  91. Wright, A. L., Taussig, L. M., Ray, C. G., Harrison, H. R., & Holberg, C. J. (1989). The Tucson Children’s Respiratory Study: II. Lower respiratory illness in the first year of life. Am. J. Epidemiol., 129. 1232–1246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Wubbel, L., Muniz, L., Ahmed, A., Trujillo, M., Carubelli, C., McCoig, C., Abramo, T, Leinonen, M., & McCracken, G. H. (1999). Etiology and treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in ambulatory children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 18, 98–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Zukin, D. D., Hoffman, J. R., Cleveland, R. H., Kushner, D. C., & Herman, T. E. (1986). Correlation of pulmonary signs and symptoms with chest radiographs in the pediatric age group. Ann. Emerg. Med., 15, 792–796.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elaine E. Wang
    • 1
  • Herbert Dele Davoes
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsThe Hospital for Sick Children, and University of TorontoTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Child Health Research UnitAlberta Children’s Hospital, and University of CalgaryCalgaryCanada

Personalised recommendations