## About this series

With the Encylopaedia of Mathematical Sciences, Springer-Verlag presents a series of surveys in contemporary mathematics written by/with the cooperation of the foremost specialists worldwide. Major mathematical specialties are covered by a sequence of volumes (such as Topology, Geometry, Algebraic Geometry, Several Complex Variables, Analysis, Lie Groups and Lie Algebras, Number Theory, Partial Differential Equations, and Dynamical Systems) with several famous mathematicians acting as consulting editors. Each volume comprises several articles on closely related topics in that area.

The articles report on a topic in terms of the major concepts and results, without giving details of proofs unless these are intrinsically instructive, and situating them in the broader context of the field and of the interactions with neighbouring fields.

The series started as a joint effort with the Soviet publisher VINITI.

Starting with Volume 100, the Encyclopaedia of Mathematical Sciences follows a new concept. Its main features are as follows: several new subseries have been launched and more are in preparation. Each new subseries has a team of editors who develops the scientific concept of the subseries.

The current new subseries are:

- Mathematical Physics: J. FrÃ¶hlich, B. Khesin, S.P. Novikov and D. Ruelle (Eds.)

- Operator Algebras and Non-Commutative Geometry: J. Cuntz, and Vaughan Jones (Eds.)

- Low-Dimensional Topology: R.V.Gamkrelidze, V.A.Vassiliev (Eds.)

- Invariant Theory and Algebraic Transformation Groups: R.V.Gamkrelidze, V.L.Popov (Eds.)

- Probability Theory: A.-S. Sznitman, S.R.S. Varadhan (Eds.)

The Encyclopaedia of Mathematical Sciences is of immediate interest to all users of mathematics, be they mathematicians themselves in the daily work in need of a reference for neighbouring fields, be they teachers of mathematics in need of a global review of a field, or appliers of mathematical results and methods such as physicists, engineers, economists etc.