© 2016

Faith and Magic in Early Modern Finland


Part of the Palgrave Historical Studies in Witchcraft and Magic book series (PHSWM)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-ix
  2. Raisa Maria Toivo
    Pages 1-23
  3. Raisa Maria Toivo
    Pages 61-111
  4. Raisa Maria Toivo
    Pages 141-146
  5. Back Matter
    Pages 147-183

About this book


Early modern Finland is rarely the focus of attention in the study of European history, but it has a place in the context of northern European religious and political culture. While Finland was theoretically Lutheran, a religious plurality – embodied in ceremonies and interpreted as magic – survived and flourished. Blessing candles, pilgrimages, and offerings to forest spirits merged with catechism hearings and sermon preaching among the lay piety. What were the circumstances that allowed for such a continuity of magic? How were the manifestations and experiences that defined faith and magic tied together? How did western and eastern religious influences manifest themselves in Finnish magic? Faith and Magic in Early Modern Finland shows us how peripheral Finland can shed light on the wider context of European magic and religion.


Early modern Finland Witchcraft Magic Reformation chronology Europe history history of religion modern history reform reformation religion social history social science

Authors and affiliations

  1. 1.University of TampereFinland

About the authors

Raisa Maria Toivo is Academy of Finland Research Fellow at the University of Tampere, Finland. Her publications include Witchcraft and Gender in Early Modern Society (2008) and articles on the early modern history of witchcraft and magic, religion and violence in Finland and Europe.

Bibliographic information

  • Book Title Faith and Magic in Early Modern Finland
  • Authors Raisa Maria Toivo
  • Series Title Palgrave Historical Studies in Witchcraft and Magic
  • DOI
  • Copyright Information The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2016
  • Publisher Name Palgrave Macmillan, London
  • eBook Packages History History (R0)
  • Hardcover ISBN 978-1-137-54726-2
  • Softcover ISBN 978-1-349-71437-7
  • eBook ISBN 978-1-137-54727-9
  • Edition Number 1
  • Number of Pages IX, 183
  • Number of Illustrations 8 b/w illustrations, 0 illustrations in colour
  • Topics Modern History
    European History
    History of Religion
    Social History
  • Buy this book on publisher's site


“This is a well-structured work that offers valuable and important contributions to our understanding of the uneven Christianization process in European countries during the seventeenth century–good scholarly work, indeed.” (Rune Blix Hagen, Renaissance Quarterly, Vol. 70 (4), 2017)

“Toivo (Univ. of Tampere, Finland) is interested in the whole complex of witchcraft, lived religion, and formal churchmanship, constructing a seamless whole to gain the full picture of religious life. … This specialized study will support collections in religious studies and the history of northern Europe. Summing Up: Recommended. Graduate students/faculty.” (D. S. Azzolina, Choice, Vol. 54 (3), November, 2016)