© 2015

Firebrand Waves of Digital Activism 1994–2014

The Rise and Spread of Hacktivism and Cyberconflict


Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-vii
  2. Athina Karatzogianni
    Pages 5-24
  3. Athina Karatzogianni
    Pages 121-141
  4. Back Matter
    Pages 142-172

About this book


This book introduces four waves of upsurge in digital activism and cyberconflict. The rise of digital activism started in 1994, was transformed by the events of 9/11, culminated in 2011 with the Arab Spring uprisings, and entered a transformative phase of control and mainstreaming since 2013 with the Snowden affair.


Digital activism hackers cyber conflict digital media social movements cyber attacks Digital Media media Nation politics

Authors and affiliations

  1. 1.University of LeicesterUK

About the authors

Athina Karatzogianni is Senior Lecturer in Media and Communication at the University of Leicester, UK. She specialises on the intersections between new media theory, resistance networks and global politics, and studies the use of digital technologies by social movements, protest, and insurgency groups.

Bibliographic information


'The book presents a high quality and original contribution to the field. The main argument of the book is unique, and synthesizes literature across a number of disciplines innovatively. We have seen several studies or individual articles that examine instances, or shorter trajectories of digital activism. This volume is unique in that it provides a thorough historical overview of digital activism and connects this historical overview to theoretical terms, perspectives and development.' Zizi Papacharissi, University of Illinois at Chicago, USA