© 2005

The Evaluation of Surrogate Endpoints

  • Tomasz Burzykowski
  • Geert Molenberghs
  • Marc Buyse
  • Covers the latest research on a sensitive and controversial topic in a rpofessional and well researched manner

  • Provides practical outlook as well as model guidelines and software tools that should be of interest to people who use the software tools described and those who do not

  • Related title by Co-author Geert Molenbergh has sold more than 3500 copies world wide

  • Provides dual viewpoints: from scientists in the industry as well as regulatory authorities


Part of the Statistics for Biology and Health book series (SBH)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xxiii
  2. Geert Molenberghs, Marc Buyse, Tomasz Burzykowski
    Pages 1-5
  3. Geert Molenberghs, Marc Buyse, Tomasz Burzykowski
    Pages 7-12
  4. Geert Molenberghs, Marc Buyse, Tomasz Burzykowski
    Pages 53-65
  5. Geert Molenberghs, Marc Buyse, Tomasz Burzykowski
    Pages 67-82
  6. Geert Molenberghs, Marc Buyse, Tomasz Burzykowski
    Pages 95-120
  7. José Cortiñas Abrahantes, Tomasz Burzykowski, Geert Molenberghs
    Pages 121-141
  8. Didier Renard, Helena Geys
    Pages 153-162
  9. Tomasz Burzykowski, José Cortiñas Abrahantes
    Pages 163-194
  10. Tomasz Burzykowski
    Pages 195-217
  11. Ariel Alonso Abad, Helena Geys, Tony Vangeneugden
    Pages 231-251
  12. Ziv Shkedy, Franz Torres Barbosa
    Pages 253-270
  13. Tony Vangeneugden, Ariel Alonso Abad, Helena Geys, Annouschka Laenen
    Pages 271-293
  14. Tomasz Burzykowski, Marc Buyse
    Pages 323-340

About this book


Both humanitarian and commercial considerations have spurred intensive search for methods to reduce the time and cost required to develop new therapies. The identification and use of surrogate endpoints, i.e., measures that can replace or supplement other endpoints in evaluations of experimental treatments or other interventions, is a general strategy that has stimulated both enthusiasm and skepticism. Surrogate endpoints are useful when they can be measured earlier, more conveniently, or more frequently than the "true" endpoints of primary interest. Regulatory agencies around the globe, particularly in the United States, Europe, and Japan, are introducing provisions and policies relating to the use of surrogate endpoints in registration studies. But how can one establish the adequacy of a surrogate? What kind of evidence is needed, and what statistical methods portray that evidence most appropriately?

This book offers a balanced account on this controversial topic. The text presents major developments of the last couple of decades, together with a unified, meta-analytic framework within which surrogates can be evaluated from several angles. Methodological development is coupled with perspectives on various therapeutic areas. Academic views are juxtaposed with standpoints of scientists working in the biopharmaceutical industry as well as of colleagues from the regulatory authorities.

Tomasz Burzykowski is Assistant Professor of Biostatistics at the Limburgs Universitair Centrum in Belgium. Dr. Burzykowski has published methodological work on the analysis of survey data, meta-analyses of clinical trials, and validation of surrogate endpoints. He is a co-author of numerous papers applying statistical methods to clinical data in different disease areas (cancer, cardiovascular diseases, dermatology, orthodontics).

Geert Molenberghs is Professor of Biostatistics at the Limburgs Universitair Centrum in Belgium. Dr. Molenberghs published methodological work on surrogate markers in clinical trials, categorical data, longitudinal data analysis, and on the analysis of non-response in clinical and epidemiological studies. He serves as Joint Editor for Applied Statistics (2001-2004) and is President of the International Biometric Society (2004-2005). He was elected Fellow of the American Statistical Association and received the Guy Medal in Bronze from the Royal Statistical Society.

Marc Buyse founded the International Drug Development Institute in 1991. He is Past President of the International Society for Clinical Biostatistics, Past President of the Quetelet Society, and Past Board Member of the Society for Clinical Trials. He is currently the Executive Director of IDDI (International Drug Development Institute) and Associate Professor of biostatistics at the Limburgs Universitair Centrum, Center for Statistics, Diepenbeek, Belgium. He has published extensively in the fields of biostatistics and oncology. His research interests include meta-analysis, surrogate endpoints, statistical detection of fraud, and the design and statistical analysis of clinical trials.


cancer data analysis dermatology diseases oncology statistics therapy

Editors and affiliations

  • Tomasz Burzykowski
    • 1
  • Geert Molenberghs
    • 1
  • Marc Buyse
    • 2
  1. 1.Center for StatisticsLimburgs Universitair CentrumDiepenbeekBelgium
  2. 2.International Drug Development InstituteBrusselsBelgium

Bibliographic information

  • Book Title The Evaluation of Surrogate Endpoints
  • Editors Tomasz Burzykowski
    Geert Molenberghs
    Marc Buyse
  • Series Title Statistics for Biology and Health
  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005
  • Publisher Name Springer, New York, NY
  • eBook Packages Mathematics and Statistics Mathematics and Statistics (R0)
  • Hardcover ISBN 978-0-387-20277-8
  • Softcover ISBN 978-1-4419-1906-9
  • eBook ISBN 978-0-387-27080-7
  • Series ISSN 1431-8776
  • Edition Number 1
  • Number of Pages XXIV, 410
  • Number of Illustrations 0 b/w illustrations, 0 illustrations in colour
  • Topics Statistics for Life Sciences, Medicine, Health Sciences
Industry Sectors
Health & Hospitals
Finance, Business & Banking
Consumer Packaged Goods


From the reviews:

"A strength of this book is its comprehensive and up-to-date presentation of issues pertinent to the evaluation of surrgoate endpoints...This book makes an important contribution to the clinical trials literature..." Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics, 2006

"Many of the chapters deal with real-life data examples and studies involving surrogate outcomes, many written by authors who were directly involved in these studies...The editors have written nice background sections...until a more concise manuscript on this topic is written, this book will remain the most important resource for biostatisticians and researchers in this area." Debajyoti Sinha for the Journal of the American Statistical Association, December 2006

"This book is a reflection of the ongoing debate on the definition and use of surrogate markers...I see the book as an invitation to join the debate. There is much work to be done and reading the book might inspire many to participate. It will be useful for researchers in this and related fields, such as joint modeling of longitudinal and survival data and multivariate meta-analysis. The book is well organized, is a pleasure to read, and is very well documented with up-to-date references." Hans C. Van Houwelingen for Bioometrics, September 2006

"This edited volume deals with a topic that has been the subject of much debate since publication of Prentice’s 1989 attempt to formalize the definition of a surrogate marker or endpoint. … This work focuses on evaluation of a surrogate endpoint. … an attempt has been made to maintain common notations whenever possible. The editors have succeeded in producing a very useful book." (V. T. Farewell, Short Book Reviews, Vol. 25 (2), 2005)

"I enjoyed readhing the book and I certainly learned a lot about these fascinating areas. The book is suitable as a textbook for a postgraduate course in statistics but is also an invaluable reference for the applied statisticians working in industry, academia, or regulatory authority."  (ISCB News Book Reviews, 2008)