Learning Cooperatively under Challenging Circumstances

Cooperation among Students in High-Risk Contexts in El Salvador

  • Christine Schmalenbach

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages I-XIII
  2. Christine Schmalenbach
    Pages 1-9
  3. Christine Schmalenbach
    Pages 11-41
  4. Christine Schmalenbach
    Pages 43-63
  5. Christine Schmalenbach
    Pages 65-111
  6. Christine Schmalenbach
    Pages 113-148
  7. Christine Schmalenbach
    Pages 149-316
  8. Christine Schmalenbach
    Pages 317-326
  9. Back Matter
    Pages 327-356

About this book


Christine Schmalenbach examines the use and potential of cooperation among students at high-risk schools in El Salvador with the objective of facilitating a culture- and context-sensitive use of cooperative learning in this setting and in similar ones in other countries. At the core is an ethnography of a marginalized neighborhood in the metropolitan area of San Salvador. The author collected data throughout a school year, mostly through participant observation and interviews with teachers, students, parents, and co-workers of a local NGO. To provide context, she conducted a literature review on the history of cooperation among students in El Salvador and implemented an exploratory survey among teachers in the same municipality.


  • Learning Cooperatively
  • The Transformative Paradigm
  • Ethnography as an Approach
  • Historical and Social Background in El Salvador
  • A Survey of Cooperation in Schools
  • Ethnographic Study and Findings

Target Groups

  • Researchers and students in the fields of education and Latin American studies
  • Teachers, teacher educators

The Author

Christine Schmalenbach is a lecturer at the Department for Social and Emotional Development in Rehabilitation and Education at the Faculty of Rehabilitation Sciences of the TU Dortmund University.


Cooperative Learning Ethnography Latin America Education Mixed Methods Participation El Salvador Transformative Paradigm Postcolonial Indigenous Research Methodologies Small Group Learning Solidarity Teaching

Authors and affiliations

  • Christine Schmalenbach
    • 1
  1. 1.Fakultät RehabilitationswissenschaftenTU DortmundDortmundGermany

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH 2018
  • Publisher Name Springer VS, Wiesbaden
  • eBook Packages Education
  • Print ISBN 978-3-658-21332-9
  • Online ISBN 978-3-658-21333-6
  • Buy this book on publisher's site
Industry Sectors