Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages I-XIV
  2. Stephan Ahbe, Simon Weihofen, Steffen Wellge
    Pages 1-3 Open Access
  3. Stephan Ahbe, Simon Weihofen, Steffen Wellge
    Pages 5-9 Open Access
  4. Stephan Ahbe, Simon Weihofen, Steffen Wellge
    Pages 11-26 Open Access
  5. Stephan Ahbe, Simon Weihofen, Steffen Wellge
    Pages 27-32 Open Access
  6. Stephan Ahbe, Simon Weihofen, Steffen Wellge
    Pages 33-53 Open Access
  7. Stephan Ahbe, Simon Weihofen, Steffen Wellge
    Pages 55-85 Open Access
  8. Stephan Ahbe, Simon Weihofen, Steffen Wellge
    Pages 87-89 Open Access
  9. Back Matter
    Pages 91-93

About this book


This book is published open access under a CC BY 4.0 license.

This report transfers the Ecological Scarcity Method (ESM) to the EU and its 28 member states. It provides a powerful tool for unbiased environmental assessments in enterprises and surveys the current impacts and the targets published by environmental authorities, specifically the European Environment Agency. ESM assesses environmental impacts of manufacturing sites and production processes. Developed in 1990 in Switzerland, ESM has already gained regulatory status in proving entitlements for tax exemptions. The method assesses all important impacts in air, water, energy consumption, waste generation and freshwater consumption and also supports en vironmental investment decisions.

  • Methodological Basics 
  • Data Research and Results
  • Eco Factors for EU28
Target Groups
  • Practitioners in industries and public authorities in the field of Environment 
  • Researchers and students of Ecological Sciences and Industrial Management
About the Authors
Dr. Stephan Ahbe is initiator and author of Swiss Ecological Scarcity Method published in 1990 and today develops Environmental Management Systems at SYRCON in Darmstadt, Germany.
Dr. Simon Weihofen is Environmental and Energy Manager in Group Management at E.ON SE in Essen, Germany.
Dr. Steffen Wellge is an Environmental and Energy Management Specialist at the Volkswagen Group Research, Wolfsburg, Germany.


Environmental impact Environmental assessment Ecological Scarcity Method Environmental and energy management EMAS and ISO 14001 European Union ESM Eco-points Volkswagen Research Open Access

Authors and affiliations

  • Stephan Ahbe
    • 1
  • Simon Weihofen
    • 2
  • Steffen Wellge
    • 3
  1. 1.Syrcon Wirtschaftsingenieure DarmstadtGermany
  2. 2.Group Environmental and Energy ManagemenE.ON SE EssenGermany
  3. 3.Konzernforschung UmweltVolkswagen AGWolfsburgGermany

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2018
  • Publisher Name Springer, Wiesbaden
  • eBook Packages Earth and Environmental Science
  • Print ISBN 978-3-658-19505-2
  • Online ISBN 978-3-658-19506-9
  • About this book
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