Software Cost Estimation, Benchmarking, and Risk Assessment

The Software Decision-Makers' Guide to Predictable Software Development

  • Adam Trendowicz

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xxvi
  2. Predictable Software Development

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 1-1
    2. Adam Trendowicz
      Pages 3-7
    3. Adam Trendowicz
      Pages 9-10
    4. Adam Trendowicz
      Pages 11-12
  3. The CoBRA Method

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 13-13
    2. Adam Trendowicz
      Pages 15-20
    3. Adam Trendowicz
      Pages 21-147
    4. Adam Trendowicz
      Pages 149-165
    5. Adam Trendowicz
      Pages 167-188
  4. Industrial Applications

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 189-189
    2. Adam Trendowicz
      Pages 191-202
    3. Adam Trendowicz
      Pages 203-218
    4. Adam Trendowicz
      Pages 219-253
    5. Adam Trendowicz
      Pages 255-284
    6. Adam Trendowicz
      Pages 285-296
  5. Back Matter
    Pages 297-322

About this book


Software effort estimation is a key element of software project planning and management. Yet, in industrial practice, the important role of effort estimation is often underestimated and/or misunderstood.

In this book, Adam Trendowicz presents the CoBRA method  (an abbreviation for Cost Estimation, Benchmarking, and Risk Assessment) for estimating the effort required to successfully complete a software development project, which uniquely combines human judgment and measurement data in order to systematically create a custom-specific effort estimation model. CoBRA goes far beyond simply predicting the development effort; it supports project decision-makers in negotiating the project scope, managing project risks, benchmarking productivity, and directing improvement activities. To illustrate the method’s practical use, the book reports several real-world cases where CoBRA was applied in various industrial contexts. These cases represent different estimation contexts in terms of software project environment, estimation objectives, and estimation constraints.

This book is the result of a successful collaboration between the process management division of Fraunhofer IESE and many software companies in the field of software engineering technology transfer. It mainly addresses software practitioners who deal with planning and managing software development projects as part of their daily work, and is also of interest for students or courses specializing in software engineering or software project management.


CoBRA method software cost estimation software effort estimation software engineering software measurement software project management software risk management

Authors and affiliations

  • Adam Trendowicz
    • 1
  1. 1.Software EngineeringFraunhofer Institute for ExperimentalKaiserslauternGermany

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013
  • Publisher Name Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
  • eBook Packages Computer Science
  • Print ISBN 978-3-642-30763-8
  • Online ISBN 978-3-642-30764-5
  • Series Print ISSN 2193-8199
  • Series Online ISSN 2193-8202
  • Buy this book on publisher's site
Industry Sectors
Chemical Manufacturing
Finance, Business & Banking
IT & Software
Energy, Utilities & Environment