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Clinical Data Analysis on a Pocket Calculator

Understanding the Scientific Methods of Statistical Reasoning and Hypothesis Testing

  • Ton J. Cleophas
  • Aeilko H. Zwinderman

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xxiii
  2. Continuous Outcome Data

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 1-1
    2. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 3-6
    3. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 7-11
    4. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 13-18
    5. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 19-23
    6. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 25-29
    7. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 31-36
    8. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 37-43
    9. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 51-56
    10. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 57-63
    11. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 65-70
    12. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 71-74
    13. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 75-78
    14. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 79-82
    15. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 83-86
    16. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 87-91
    17. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 93-97
    18. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 99-102
    19. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 103-106
    20. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 107-111
    21. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 113-119
    22. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 121-124
    23. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 125-129
    24. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 139-143
    25. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 145-149
    26. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 151-157
    27. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 159-162
    28. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 163-170
    29. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 171-174
    30. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 175-179
    31. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 181-184
    32. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 185-191
    33. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 193-197
  3. Binary Outcome Data

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 199-199
    2. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 201-205
    3. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 207-210
    4. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 211-214
    5. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 215-219
    6. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 221-223
    7. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 225-230
    8. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 231-235
    9. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 237-241
    10. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 243-247
    11. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 249-252
    12. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 253-256
    13. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 257-262
    14. Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman
      Pages 263-268

About this book

Introduction

In everyone's life the day comes that medical and health care has the highest priority. It is unbelievable, that a field, so important, uses the scientific method so little. The current book is helpful for implementation of the scientific method in the daily life of medical and health care workers. From readers' comments to the first editions of this work, the authors came to realize that statistical software programs is experienced by professionals in the field as black box programs producing lots of p-values, but little answers to scientific questions, and many readers had not been happy with that situation. The pocket calculator analyses appeared to be, particularly, appreciated, because they enabled readers for the first time to understand the scientific methods of statistical reasoning and hypothesis testing. So much so, that it started something like a new dimension in their professional world.

We should add a number of statistical methods can be performed more easily on a pocket calculator, than using a software program. Also, there are some specific advantages of the pocket calculator method. You better understand what you are doing. The pocket calculator works faster, because far less steps have to be taken, averages can be used. With statistical software all individual data have to be included separately, a time-consuming activity in case of large data files. Some analytical methods, for example, power calculations and required sample size calculations are difficult on a statistical software program, and easy on a pocket calculator.

The reason for a rewrite was to give updated and upgraded versions of the forty chapters from the first editions, including the valuable comments of readers. Like in the textbook complementary to the current work, entitled "SPSS for Starters and 2nd Levelers" (Springer Heidelberg 2015, from the same authors), an improved structure of the chapters was produced, including background, main purpose, scientific question, schematic overview of data files, and reference sections. In addition, for the analysis of more complex data twenty novel chapters were written. We showed that, also here, a pocket calculator can be very helpful.

For the readers' convenience the chapters have been reclassified according to the most basic difference in data characteristics: continuous outcome data (34 chapters), binary outcome data (26 chapters). Both hypothesized and real data examples are used to explain the sixty pocket calculator methods described. The arithmetic is of a no-more-than high-school level.    



 

Keywords

medicine health care statistical analyses clinical data analysis statistical software analysis

Authors and affiliations

  • Ton J. Cleophas
    • 1
  • Aeilko H. Zwinderman
    • 2
  1. 1.Department MedicineAlbert Schweitzer HospitalDordrechtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Dept. Epidemiology and BiostatisticsAcademic Medical CenterAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Bibliographic information

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Pharma
Biotechnology
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