Chemical Evolution

The Biological System of the Elements

  • Bernd Markert
  • Stefan Fränzle
  • Simone Wünschmann

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xvii
  2. Bernd Markert, Stefan Fränzle, Simone Wünschmann
    Pages 1-62
  3. Bernd Markert, Stefan Fränzle, Simone Wünschmann
    Pages 63-104
  4. Bernd Markert, Stefan Fränzle, Simone Wünschmann
    Pages 105-156
  5. Bernd Markert, Stefan Fränzle, Simone Wünschmann
    Pages 185-195
  6. Bernd Markert, Stefan Fränzle, Simone Wünschmann
    Pages 197-207
  7. Back Matter
    Pages 209-282

About this book


This book is written for researchers and students interested in the function and role of chemical elements in biological or environmental systems. Experts have long known that the Periodic System of Elements (PSE) provides only an inadequate chemical description of elements of biological, environmental or medicinal importance. This book explores the notion of a Biological System of the Elements (BSE) established on accurate and precise multi-element data, including evolutionary aspects, representative sampling procedures, inter-element relationships, the physiological function of elements and uptake mechanisms. The book further explores the concept Stoichiometric Network Analysis (SNA) to analyze the biological roles of chemical species. Also discussed is the idea of ecotoxicological identity cards which give a first-hand description of properties relevant for biological and toxicological features of a certain chemical element and its geo biochemically plausible speciation form. The focus of this book goes beyond both classical bioinorganic chemistry and toxicology.


BSE Biological System of Elements Chemical Evolution Ecotoxicology Identity Cards for Elements SNA Stoichiometric Network Analysis

Authors and affiliations

  • Bernd Markert
    • 1
  • Stefan Fränzle
    • 2
  • Simone Wünschmann
    • 3
  1. 1.Environmental Institute of Scientific Networks (EISN)HarenGermany
  2. 2.International Graduate School ZittauZittauGermany
  3. 3.Environmental Institute of Scientific Networks (EISN)HarenGermany

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015
  • Publisher Name Springer, Cham
  • eBook Packages Chemistry and Materials Science
  • Print ISBN 978-3-319-14354-5
  • Online ISBN 978-3-319-14355-2
  • About this book
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Chemical Manufacturing
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