© 2014

Mutual Sustainability of Tubewell Farming and Aquifers

Perspectives from Balochistan, Pakistan

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Part of the Advances in Asian Human-Environmental Research book series (AAHER)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xxv
  2. Ahmad Saeed Khattak
    Pages 1-13
  3. Ahmad Saeed Khattak
    Pages 15-36
  4. Ahmad Saeed Khattak
    Pages 37-61
  5. Ahmad Saeed Khattak
    Pages 63-79
  6. Ahmad Saeed Khattak
    Pages 81-105
  7. Ahmad Saeed Khattak
    Pages 107-133
  8. Ahmad Saeed Khattak
    Pages 135-146
  9. Back Matter
    Pages 147-168

About this book


This book develops and presents a conceptual model for sustainable-groundwater irrigated agriculture. The model is based on the general principles of the economic theories of cost-benefit relations and behavioral models of resource use. The study has evaluated the advances in tubewell farming and the aquifer potential in arid Balochistan over a period of three decades. It has analyzed the booms and busts of the farming over time taking into consideration the local aquifer limitations and the socio-political considerations and policy framework. Three data sets – farmers, expert officials, and satellite images - have been used to aid validation. By observing the most vital parameters, the study has concluded that the local aquifer has been falling at a rate directly proportional to the growth rate of irrigated farming, suggesting the current development process is unsustainable. For instance, the research finds that tubewell bores have reached down to depths where the term “aquifer mining” applies; as a result, irrigation costs have become too high to allow farming to be economically viable. In addition, desertification is steadily encroaching and the cropping pattern being changed from high-value horticulture to subsistence cropping. The study has also set parameters for assessing the willingness of farmers to accept modern, sustainable strategies and interventions.      


Desertification Groudwater Management Irrigated Agriculture Pishin Valley, Balochistan

Authors and affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of BalochistanQuettaPakistan

About the authors

Dr. Ahmad Saeed is Assistant Professor at the Department of Geography, University of Balochistan, Quetta, Pakistan. He has a M.Sc. from the University of Peshawar and a Ph.D. from the University of the Punjab, Lahore. He specializes in water resources management and agricultural geography and has recently published Textbooks of Pakistan Studies, Geography and Social Studies for primary and secondary school levels working under the Balochistan Textbook Board. In addition, he has contributed in different capacities, such as editing, review, etc. in textbooks development for the textbook boards of Balochistan, Punjab and Sindh provinces of Pakistan.

Bibliographic information

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