© 2021

Reactive Power Support Using Photovoltaic Systems

Techno-Economic Analysis and Implementation Algorithms

  • Nominated as an outstanding PhD thesis by the National University of Singapore

  • Explores use of reactive power from PV to support the electrical grid

  • Proposes practical methods for optimizing integration of PV into the grid


Part of the Springer Theses book series (Springer Theses)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xxv
  2. Oktoviano Gandhi
    Pages 1-20
  3. Oktoviano Gandhi
    Pages 145-152
  4. Back Matter
    Pages 153-156

About this book


With the widespread adoption of photovoltaic (PV) systems across the world, many researchers, industry players, and regulators have been exploring the use of reactive power from PV to support the grid. This thesis is the first to comprehensively quantify and analyse the techno-economic cost and benefits of reactive power support using PV. On top of formulating the cost of PV reactive power and identifying the feasible range of its monetary incentives, this thesis has also proposed practical methods to implement the reactive power dispatch effectively and efficiently, with and without communication infrastructure. The findings and approaches in this work can therefore help power system planners and operators towards better integration of PV into the electrical grid, both in terms of regulation and implementation.


Distribution System Optimisation Algorithm Photovoltaic Inverter Photovoltaic System Power Dispatch Optimisation Power System Reactive Power

Authors and affiliations

  1. 1.Solar Energy Research Institute of SingaporeNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore

About the authors

Oktoviano Gahdhi. On the research front, Oktoviano has worked on the engineering aspects of solar cells and modules, solar energy integration in power systems, all the way to analysing policies’ impact on energy intensity. His scientific works have resulted in more than thirty international publications. 
Through Alva Energi, a company that he co-founded, Oktoviano is channelling his expertise in solar energy, rural electrification, electricity grid planning, and energy policy to promote renewable energy development in Indonesia. His works and achievements have been recognised internationally; in 2020, Okto was featured in Vanity Fair Global Goals List, representing SDG7: Affordable and Clean Energy.

Bibliographic information

  • Book Title Reactive Power Support Using Photovoltaic Systems
  • Book Subtitle Techno-Economic Analysis and Implementation Algorithms
  • Authors Oktoviano Gandhi
  • Series Title Springer Theses
  • Series Abbreviated Title Springer Theses
  • DOI
  • Copyright Information The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021
  • Publisher Name Springer, Cham
  • eBook Packages Energy Energy (R0)
  • Hardcover ISBN 978-3-030-61250-4
  • Softcover ISBN 978-3-030-61253-5
  • eBook ISBN 978-3-030-61251-1
  • Series ISSN 2190-5053
  • Series E-ISSN 2190-5061
  • Edition Number 1
  • Number of Pages XXV, 156
  • Number of Illustrations 5 b/w illustrations, 82 illustrations in colour
  • Topics Renewable and Green Energy
    Power Electronics, Electrical Machines and Networks
    Energy Policy, Economics and Management
Industry Sectors
Chemical Manufacturing
Finance, Business & Banking
Energy, Utilities & Environment
Oil, Gas & Geosciences