© 2021

Entomopathogenic Nematodes and Their Symbiotic Bacteria

A Laboratory Manual


Part of the Springer Protocols Handbooks book series (SPH)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xiii
  2. S. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Razia
    Pages 1-4
  3. S. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Razia
    Pages 5-6
  4. S. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Razia
    Pages 7-13
  5. S. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Razia
    Pages 15-18
  6. S. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Razia
    Pages 19-26
  7. S. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Razia
    Pages 27-30
  8. S. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Razia
    Pages 31-45
  9. S. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Razia
    Pages 47-111
  10. S. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Razia
    Pages 113-143
  11. S. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Razia
    Pages 145-152
  12. S. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Razia
    Pages 153-158
  13. S. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Razia
    Pages 159-161
  14. Back Matter
    Pages 163-176

About this book


This book provides basic information and different protocols associated with the Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) and their symbiotic bacteria. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) of the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis and their associated bacterial symbionts Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus aid nematode infective juveniles (IJs) in infecting and killing their insect hosts, creating a unique tripartite complex of host-vector-symbiont interactions. Due to this insect killing capability, EPNs are used as biological control agents of economically important insect pests. They are also a model system to study host-parasite interactions.

It provides a systematic approach to various nematode procedures including pathogenicity, reproduction, foraging behaviour. It gives a brief outline on historical aspects, nematode-bacterium complex, biology and chemical ecology of EPNs. It concisely describes host insect rearing, nematode sampling and storage, isolation techniques, counting, handling and staining of nematodes, characterization including morphological, molecular and ecological studies, mass production, virulence bioassay, field application and efficacy. The book also includes methods and techniques for their associated symbiotic bacteria.

This book serves as a laboratory manual and assists the readers to undertake advanced research in different aspects related to nematodes. It is useful for researchers in the fields of nematology, microbiology, bacteriology and entomology.


Symbiotic bacteria Entomopathogenic Nematodes Bioassay Characterization Efficacy Isolation Mass production

Authors and affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyBharathidasan UniversityTiruchirappalliIndia
  2. 2.Department of BiotechnologyMother Teresa Women’s UniversityKodaikanalIndia

About the authors

Dr. S. Sivaramakrishnan is the Head, Department of Biotechnology, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, India. He is engaged in research and teaching for over twenty years. His specialization is nematology, agricultural biotechnology, biopesticides and nanotechnological applications. He has won young scientists award four times. He is a member of the editorial board of European Journal of Nematology and is a reviewer for nearly ten journals. He is an active life member of Nematologist Society of India. He has scientific publications in national and international journals. He has been the principal investigator of major DBT, DST and UGC projects. He has international collaborations, signed MoU between USA, Korea, Iran and Turkey. He has organized international conferences and national awareness programme.

Dr. M. Razia is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Biotechnology, Mother Teresa Women’s University, Kodaikanal, India. She has an expertise in the areas of nematology, microbial biotechnology and phytochemistry. She is engaged in teaching and research activities for 15 years. She has published several scientific papers in reputed national and international journals. She has carried out major projects of UGC and DST-SERB. She has organized conference, seminar and workshops. She is a life member of Lichen Society of India, The Indian Science Congress Association, The Biotechnology Society of India and Association of Microbiology India. She has won the young scientists award.

Bibliographic information

  • Book Title Entomopathogenic Nematodes and Their Symbiotic Bacteria
  • Book Subtitle A Laboratory Manual
  • Authors S. Sivaramakrishnan
    M. Razia
  • Series Title Springer Protocols Handbooks
  • Series Abbreviated Title Springer Protocols Handbooks
  • DOI
  • Copyright Information The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2021
  • Publisher Name Springer, New York, NY
  • eBook Packages Springer Protocols
  • Hardcover ISBN 978-1-0716-1444-0
  • Softcover ISBN 978-1-0716-1447-1
  • eBook ISBN 978-1-0716-1445-7
  • Series ISSN 1949-2448
  • Series E-ISSN 1949-2456
  • Edition Number 1
  • Number of Pages XIII, 176
  • Number of Illustrations 1 b/w illustrations, 28 illustrations in colour
  • Topics Microbiology
    Biological Techniques
    Biochemistry, general
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