Collaborative Network Organizations (CNO) corresponds to a very active and steadily growing area. For instance, Virtual enterprises/Virtual Organizations (PVC) suggest new ways of work and put the emphasis on collaborative networks of human actors.
Further to these main lines, other collaborative forms and patterns of collaborative behavior are emerging, not only in industry, but also in service sector, as well as governmental and non-government social organizations, e.g. the collaborative networks for rescue tasks in disaster situations, time bank organizations, etc.
The concept of breeding environment is now understood as a fundamental entity to enable dynamic collaborative organizations.