Human Retroviral Infections

Immunological and Therapeutic Control

  • Kenneth E. Ugen
  • Mauro Bendinelli
  • Herman Friedman

Part of the Infectious Agents and Pathogenesis book series (IAPA)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xxii
  2. Cynthia L. Bristow
    Pages 1-16
  3. Thomas Kieber-Emmons
    Pages 61-85
  4. Mosi K. Bennett, Michael G. Agadjanyan
    Pages 87-107
  5. G. A. Dekaban, A. Peters, J. Arp, G. Franchini
    Pages 109-142
  6. Ewa Björling
    Pages 143-163
  7. Herman F. Staats, Jerry R. McGhee
    Pages 165-190
  8. Ami R. Shah, David B. Weiner, Jean D. Boyer
    Pages 191-215
  9. Joseph P. Cotropia, Kenneth E. Ugen
    Pages 217-238
  10. Sagar Kudchodkar, T. Nagashunmugam, Velpandi Ayyavoo
    Pages 239-267
  11. Maureen M. Goodenow, Elena E. Perez, John W. Sleasman
    Pages 287-305
  12. Ralph Dornburg, Roger Pomerantz
    Pages 307-323
  13. Robert P. Nelson Jr., Patricia J. Emmanuel, Maite De La Morena
    Pages 325-356
  14. Back Matter
    Pages 357-368

About this book


The discovery of the human T cell leukemia virus type I in the late 1970s heralded a new era in retrovirology. For the first time, it was demonstrated that a retrovirus could play a role in the development of a human disease, in this case adult T cell leukemia (ATL). Several years later, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic began, and it was dem- strated that a retrovirus, originally designated the human T cell lymp- tropic virus type 3, was the causal agent of this syndrome. This virus, later named the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), has since been extensively studied in terms of its pathogenesis as well as its ability to elicit immune responses. In that time, a tremendous amount of information has been obtained about the virus. Although recent drug regimens have been useful in significantly lowering viral loads and perhaps maintaining an asymptomatic state among individuals infected with HIV-1, an established “cure” for AIDS eludes us. In addition, the effective drug therapies are very expensive, and are not available to infected people in the third world, where greater than 90% of new infections occur. Furthermore, the development of viral resistance against the drug therapies is an additional concern. Despite extensive study, no effective vaccine has been developed. One of the problems in developing an effective vaccine against HIV-1 is the ability of the virus, particularly in the immunogenic envelop glycoprotein, to undergo amino acid hypervariability.


AIDS Chemokine Virus gene therapy infection infections vaccine viral infection

Editors and affiliations

  • Kenneth E. Ugen
    • 1
  • Mauro Bendinelli
    • 2
  • Herman Friedman
    • 1
  1. 1.University of South Florida College of MedicineTampa
  2. 2.University of PisaPisaItaly

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002
  • Publisher Name Springer, Boston, MA
  • eBook Packages Springer Book Archive
  • Print ISBN 978-0-306-46222-1
  • Online ISBN 978-0-306-46819-3
  • Series Print ISSN 1075-1289
  • Buy this book on publisher's site
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