© 2020

Classroom Culture in China

Collective Individualism Learning Model


  • Proposes the idea of collective-individualism-based learning to explore classroom culture at China’s educational institutions

  • Illustrates and analyzes the implicit connection between constructing classroom culture and promoting collective-individualism-based learning

  • Offers a detailed exploration of the conceptual, practical, and strategic aspects of creating a classroom culture with Chinese characteristics


About this book


This book comprehensively examines classroom culture in the Chinese context and develops the model of “collective-individualism-based learning.” Classroom culture plays a fundamental role in constructing students’ learning competencies, perceptions, and behaviors. This book puts forward a collective-individualism-based learning model to explain the classroom culture in China, both past and present.

The collective-individualism-based model reflects the individualized learning style of students in Chinese classroom culture, and is characterized by nine symbolic objects; a textbook, an exercise book, a pen, a blackboard, a screen, a computer, a table, a chair, and a platform. In addition to summarizing this approach to learning, the book examines the construction of a classroom culture with Chinese characteristics and argues that the collective-individualism-based model accurately portrays the personal learning style of students in a specific classroom culture that includes particular symbolic objects.


Classroom Classroom Traditions Classroom Structure Chinese Education Culture Chinese Education Traditions Chinese Primary School Chinese Basic Education Culture Chinese Basic Education Chinese Cultural Identity Chinese Educational Development

Authors and affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of EducationBeijing Normal UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Faculty of EducationBeijing Normal UniversityBeijingChina

About the authors

Xudong Zhu is a professor at the Institute of Teacher Education and Dean of the Faculty of Education at Beijing Normal University. His work focuses on teacher education, comparative education, and the history of education, with an emphasis on transforming the teacher education system in China, comparative studies on national development and education, and the history of ideas of education in the west. Much of his work has involved the policy and practice of teacher education and teacher professional development, aspects that he has researched in China, with the World Bank, UNESCO, Intel, etc. He is the Secretary of the National Expert Committee of Teacher Education of MOE in China and Director of the Center for Teacher Education Research among the Key Research Institutes of Humanities and Social Sciences in University of MOE. He is also Director of the Institute of Teacher Education at Beijing Normal University and Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Teacher Education Research, China.  

Jian Li, Ph.D., is an assistant professor at the China Institute of Education and Social Development, Faculty of Education, Beijing Normal University. While pursuing her Ph.D. at Indiana University in Bloomington, USA, Dr. Li served as the Senior Research Consultant for the Office of the Vice Provost for Educational Inclusion and Diversity and in associate researcher positions at the Project on Academic Success, Center for Postsecondary Research at Indiana University. Dr. Li’s general areas of scholarship are education policy and law, and comparative education policy. She has published over 40 articles, monographs, and book chapters.

Bibliographic information

  • Book Title Classroom Culture in China
  • Book Subtitle Collective Individualism Learning Model
  • Authors Xudong Zhu
    Jian Li
  • Series Title Perspectives on Rethinking and Reforming Education
  • Series Abbreviated Title Perspectives on Rethinking and Reforming Education
  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020
  • Publisher Name Springer, Singapore
  • eBook Packages Education Education (R0)
  • Hardcover ISBN 978-981-15-1826-3
  • Softcover ISBN 978-981-15-1829-4
  • eBook ISBN 978-981-15-1827-0
  • Series ISSN 2366-1658
  • Series E-ISSN 2366-1666
  • Edition Number 1
  • Number of Pages XV, 122
  • Number of Illustrations 4 b/w illustrations, 0 illustrations in colour
  • Topics International and Comparative Education
    Learning & Instruction
    Educational Philosophy
  • Buy this book on publisher's site