Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-vi
  2. Yu-Chun Lin, Hui-Chun Hsu, Chiu-Hsing Lin, Cheng-Yi Wu, Wannhsin Chen, Huey-Min Lai
    Pages 8-19 Open Access
  3. Herlina B. Setijanti, Eka Rusmawati, Rahmi Fitria, Tuty Erlina, Rina Adriany, Murtiningsih
    Pages 20-32 Open Access
  4. Tsutomu Miki Kurosawa
    Pages 33-36 Open Access
  5. Judy Strickland, Michael W. Paris, David Allen, Warren Casey
    Pages 37-49 Open Access
  6. Mohammad A. Akbarsha, Benedict Mascarenhas
    Pages 57-62 Open Access
  7. Hajime Kojima, Yoshiaki Ikarashi, Tokio Nakada, Akiko Yagami, Kenji Sugibayashi, Hiroaki Todo et al.
    Pages 63-68 Open Access
  8. Sylvie Uhlrich, Emmanuelle Coppens, Frederic Moysan, Sue Nelson, Nolwenn Nougarede
    Pages 76-82 Open Access
  9. Hee Young Kang, Eui-Bae Jeung
    Pages 105-109 Open Access
  10. Anbazhagan Murugadas, Mohammed Zeeshan, Mohammad A. Akbarsha
    Pages 110-123 Open Access
  11. Rebecca Ram
    Pages 124-128 Open Access
  12. Back Matter
    Pages 129-130

About these proceedings


This open access book presents recent advances in the pure sciences that are of significance in the quest for alternatives to the use of animals in research and describes a variety of practical applications of the three key guiding principles for the more ethical use of animals in experiments – replacement, reduction, and refinement, collectively known as the 3Rs. Important examples from across the world of implementation of the 3Rs in the testing of cosmetics, chemicals, pesticides, and biologics, including vaccines, are described, with additional information on relevant regulations. The coverage also encompasses emerging approaches to alternative tests and the 3Rs. The book is based on the most informative contributions delivered at the Asian Congress 2016 on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences. It will be of value for those working in R&D, for graduate students, and for educators in various fields, including the pharmaceutical and cosmetic sciences, pharmacology, toxicology, and animal welfare. The free, open access distribution of Alternatives to Animal Testing is enabled by the Creative Commons Attribution license in International version 4: CC BY 4.0.


3Rs for Animal experiments In Vitro Alternative to animal experiments Toxicology Animal use Open Access

Editors and affiliations

  • Hajime Kojima
    • 1
  • Troy Seidle
    • 2
  • Horst Spielmann
    • 3
  1. 1.National Institute of Health SciencesKawasakiJapan
  2. 2.Humane Society InternationalMontrealCanada
  3. 3.Institut für PharmazieFree University of BerlinBerlinGermany

Bibliographic information

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