Smart Plant Factory

The Next Generation Indoor Vertical Farms

  • Toyoki Kozai

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-ix
  2. Characteristics of Current Plant Factories and Next Generation Plant Factory

  3. Recent Outcomes in Development and Business

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 81-81
    2. Marc Kreuger, Lianne Meeuws, Gertjan Meeuws
      Pages 125-135
    3. Shunsuke Sakaguchi
      Pages 137-151
    4. Ying Zhang, Murat Kacira
      Pages 153-166
  4. Re-considerations of Photosynthesis, LEDs, Units and Terminology

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 167-167
    2. Toyoki Kozai, Satoru Tsukagoshi, Shunsuke Sakaguchi
      Pages 183-193
  5. Advances in Research on LED Lighting

  6. Advanced Technologies to Be Implemented in the Smart Plant Factory

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 239-239
    2. Rebecca Ward, Melanie Jans-Singh, Ruchi Choudhary
      Pages 245-287
    3. Marc Kreuger, Lianne Meeuws, Gertjan Meeuws
      Pages 289-299
    4. Richalynn Leong, Daisuke Urano
      Pages 301-323
    5. Shoko Hikosaka
      Pages 325-351
    6. Hirokazu Fukuda, Yusuke Tanigaki, Shogo Moriyuki
      Pages 367-384
    7. Toyoki Kozai, Satoru Tsukagoshi, Shunsuke Sakaguchi
      Pages 395-403
    8. Toyoki Kozai, Na Lu, Rikuo Hasegawa, Osamu Nunomura, Tomomi Nozaki, Yumiko Amagai et al.
      Pages 413-431
    9. Toyoki Kozai
      Pages 433-441
  7. Back Matter
    Pages 443-456

About this book


This book describes the concept, characteristics, methodology, design, management, business, recent advances and future technologies of plant factories with artificial lighting (PFAL) and indoor vertical farms.

The third wave of PFAL business started in around 2010 in Japan and Taiwan, and in USA and Europe it began in about 2013 after the rapid advances in LED technology. The book discusses the basic and advanced developments in recent PFALs and future smart PFALs that emerged in 2016.

There is an emerging interest around the globe in smart PFAL R&D and business, which are expected to play an important role in urban agriculture in the coming decades. It is also expected that they will contribute to solving the trilemma of food, environment and natural resources with increasing urban populations and decreasing agricultural populations and arable land area.

Current obstacles to successful PFAL R&D and business are: 1) no well-accepted concepts and methodology for PFAL design and management, 2) lack of understanding of the environmental effects on plant growth and development and hydroponics among engineers; 3) lack of understanding of the technical and engineering aspects of PFAL among horticulturists; 4) lack of knowledge of the technical challenges and opportunities in future PFAL businesses among business professionals, policy makers, and investors and 5) lack of a suitable textbook on the recent advances in PFAL technologies and business for graduate students and young researchers. This book covers all the aspects of successful smart PFAL R & D and business. 


Vertical farming Indoor farming Urban agriculture Innovation in agriculture City farming Sustainable urban development SaibaiX Food computer Plant factory R&D and business Food security Water culture Hydroponics Artificial lighting LED

Editors and affiliations

  • Toyoki Kozai
    • 1
  1. 1.Japan Plant Factory Association (NPO)KashiwaJapan

Bibliographic information

Industry Sectors
Chemical Manufacturing
Consumer Packaged Goods