Towards the Monitoring of Dumped Munitions Threat (MODUM)

A Study of Chemical Munitions Dumpsites in the Baltic Sea

  • Jacek Bełdowski
  • Robert Been
  • Eyup Kuntay Turmus
Conference proceedings

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xvii
  2. Jacek Bełdowski, Terrence Long, Martin Söderström
    Pages 1-17
  3. Miłosz Grabowski, Stefano Fioravanti, Robert Been, Federico Cernich, Vitalijus Malejevas
    Pages 19-47
  4. Zygmunt Klusek, Miłosz Grabowski
    Pages 49-70
  5. Martin Söderström, Anders Östin, Johanna Qvarnström, Roger Magnusson, Jenny Rattfelt-Nyholm, Merike Vaher et al.
    Pages 71-103
  6. Morten Swayne Storgaard, Ilias Christensen, Hans Sanderson
    Pages 105-128
  7. Thomas Lang, Lech Kotwicki, Michał Czub, Katarzyna Grzelak, Lina Weirup, Katharina Straumer
    Pages 129-152
  8. Patrik Fauser, Erik Amos Pedersen, Ilias Christensen
    Pages 183-212
  9. Jacek Bełdowski, Jaromir Jakacki, Miłosz Grabowski, Thomas Lang, Kela Weber, Lech Kotwicki et al.
    Pages 213-240

About these proceedings


This book describes the creation of a monitoring network, which can provide information about the exact locations and the environmental threats posed by chemical weapons (CW) dumpsites in the Baltic Sea region, using autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) and remotely operated underwater vehicles (ROVs), and utilising the existing research vessels of NATO partner institutions as launching platforms.

The dumping operations occurred shortly after World War II and included captured German munitions. Operations with munitions from the Soviet occupation zone were performed by the Soviet Navy, operations with munitions from British and American occupation zones were performed in areas outside of the Baltic Sea (Skagerrak Strait); the fate of munitions from the French occupation zone was never reported. Due to difficult legal status of these munitions, and high costs of remediation and retrieval, removal of these weapons from the bottom of the Baltic Sea seems unlikely in the foreseeable future. These dumped chemical weapons pose an actual environmental and security hazard in the Baltic Sea Region. Nowadays, with more and more industrial activities being performed in the Baltic Sea Area, the threat level is rising. 

The AUV survey is based on the IVER2 platform by OceanServer, equipped with Klein 3500 side-scan sonar. The identification phase utilises several ROVs, equipped with targeting sonars, acoustic cameras capable of penetrating turbid bottom waters up to 20m, and visual HD cameras. A novel sediment sampling system, based on a camera and sonar equipped cassette sampler, has been developed to obtain surface sediments. The test phase described consists of a survey phase, which will locate the actual objects concerned, and a monitoring phase, which will concentrate on the collection of environmental data close to the objects concerned.


Dumped Chemical Munitions Chemical Weapons Dumpsites in the Baltic Sea Dumped Chemical Weapons Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Remotely Operated Underwater Vehicles Security Hazard in the Baltic Sea Region Pollution Originating From Corroded Munitions Locating and Monitoring Underwater Dumpsites

Editors and affiliations

  • Jacek Bełdowski
    • 1
  • Robert Been
    • 2
  • Eyup Kuntay Turmus
    • 3
  1. 1.Department Marine Chemistry & GeochemistryInstitute of Oceanology PASSopotPoland
  2. 2.Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation (STO - CMRE)Science and Technology OrganisationLa SpeziaItaly
  3. 3.Emerging Security Challenges DivisionScience for Peace & Security (SPS) ProgrammeBrusselsBelgium

Bibliographic information

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