Critical Loads and Dynamic Risk Assessments

Nitrogen, Acidity and Metals in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems

  • Wim de Vries
  • Jean-Paul Hettelingh
  • Maximilian Posch

Part of the Environmental Pollution book series (EPOL, volume 25)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xxvii
  2. Wim de Vries, Jean-Paul Hettelingh, Maximilian Posch
    Pages 1-11
  3. Assessment of Indicators for Air Pollutant Impacts

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 13-13
    2. Wim de Vries, Maximilian Posch, Harald U. Sverdrup, Thorjørn Larssen, Heleen A. de Wit, Roland Bobbink et al.
      Pages 15-58
    3. Han F van Dobben, Maximilian Posch, G. W. Wieger Wamelink, Jean-Paul Hettelingh, Wim de Vries
      Pages 59-81
  4. Empirical and Model-Based Critical Loads and Target Loads

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 83-83
    2. Roland Bobbink, Hilde Tomassen, Maaike Weijters, Leon van den Berg, Joachim Strengbom, Sabine Braun et al.
      Pages 85-127
    3. Linda H. Pardo, Molly J. Robin-Abbott, Mark E. Fenn, Christine L. Goodale, Linda H. Geiser, Charles T. Driscoll et al.
      Pages 129-169
  5. Dynamic Modelling for the Assessment of Air Pollution Impacts at Site Scale

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 223-223
    2. Luc T. C. Bonten, Gert Jan Reinds, Jan E. Groenenberg, Wim de Vries, Maximilian Posch, Chris D. Evans et al.
      Pages 225-251
    3. Jan E. Groenenberg, Edward Tipping, Luc T. C. Bonten, Wim de Vries
      Pages 253-268
    4. Mark E. Fenn, Charles T. Driscoll, Qingtao Zhou, Leela E. Rao, Thomas Meixner, Edith B. Allen et al.
      Pages 269-295
    5. Ed C. Rowe, G. W. Wieger Wamelink, Simon M. Smart, Adam Butler, Peter A. Henrys, Han F. van Dobben et al.
      Pages 297-326
    6. Anne Probst, Carole Obeidy, Noémie Gaudio, Salim Belyazid, Jean-Claude Gégout, Didier Alard et al.
      Pages 359-379
    7. Angela Schlutow, Thomas Dirnböck, Tomasz Pecka, Thomas Scheuschner
      Pages 381-400
  6. Critical Loads and Dynamic Model Applications on a Regional Scale

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 401-401
    2. Chris J. Curtis, Maximilian Posch, Julian Aherne, Jens Fölster, Martin Forsius, Thorjørn Larssen et al.
      Pages 439-462
    3. Martin Forsius, Filip Moldan, Thorjørn Larssen, Maximilian Posch, Julian Aherne, Espen Lund et al.
      Pages 463-484
    4. Jean-Paul Hettelingh, Gudrun Schütze, Wim de Vries, Hugo Denier van der Gon, Ilia Ilyin, Gert Jan Reinds et al.
      Pages 523-546
    5. Han F. van Dobben, Arjen van Hinsberg, Dick Bal, Janet P. Mol-Dijkstra, Henricus J.J. Wieggers, Johannes Kros et al.
      Pages 547-572
    6. Jean-Paul Hettelingh, Carly J. Stevens, Maximilian Posch, Roland Bobbink, Wim de Vries
      Pages 573-586
  7. Integrated Assessment, Policy Applications and Synthesis

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 587-587
    2. Wim de Vries, Maximilian Posch, Gert Jan Reinds, Luc T.C. Bonten, Janet P. Mol-Dijkstra, G.W. Wieger Wamelink et al.
      Pages 589-612
    3. Jean-Paul Hettelingh, Maximilian Posch, Jaap Slootweg, Gert Jan Reinds, Wim de Vries, Anne-Christine Le Gall et al.
      Pages 613-635
    4. Jean-Paul Hettelingh, Wim de Vries, Maximilian Posch
      Pages 637-647
  8. Back Matter
    Pages 649-662

About this book


This book provides a unique overview of research methods over the past 25 years assessing critical loads and temporal effects of the deposition of air pollutants. It includes critical load methods and applications addressing acidification, eutrophication and heavy metal pollution of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Applications include examples for each air pollution threat, both at local and regional scale, including Europe, Asia, Canada and the US. The book starts with background information on the effects of the deposition of sulphur, nitrogen and heavy metals and geochemical and biological indicators for risk assessments. The use of those indicators is then illustrated in the assessment of critical loads and their exceedances and in the temporal assessment of air pollution risks. It also includes the most recent developments of assessing critical loads and current and future risks of soil and water chemistry and biodiversity under climate change, with a special focus on nitrogen. The book thus provides a complete overview of the knowledge that is currently used for the scientific support of policies in the field of air pollution control to protect ecosystem services.


Acidification Critical loads Ecosystem impacts Environmental risk assessment Eutrophication

Editors and affiliations

  • Wim de Vries
    • 1
  • Jean-Paul Hettelingh
    • 2
  • Maximilian Posch
    • 3
  1. 1.Alterra Wageningen University and Research CentreWageningenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.RIVM – Coordination Centre for EffectsBilthovenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.RIVM – Coordination Centre for EffectsBilthovenThe Netherlands

Bibliographic information