The book mainly introduces readers to the development and current status of water quality criteria (WQC) in China and other countries or areas, and proposes a minimum toxicity data requirement (MTDR; i.e., six species from three phyla) as the principle metric for deriving WQC in China. Further, ten model species from 4 different phyla are recommended as domestic test species, and the methodologies for deriving aquatic life criteria, sediment criteria, ecocriteria and nutrient criteria in China are also described in detail. In order to demonstrate the methods, several representative chemical pollutants and aquatic environments are highlighted as examples. The book provides important references for future WQC-related research in China, which will make it of great interest to researchers and graduate students in the fields of environmental science, ecology and aquatic science etc. Dr. Zhengtao Liu is a Professor at Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences.