Women’s Health and Menopause

Risk Reduction Strategies

  • R. Paoletti
  • P. G. Crosignani
  • P. Kenemans
  • G. Samsioe
  • M. R. Soma
  • A. S. Jackson

Part of the Medical Science Symposia Series book series (MSSS, volume 11)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xxix
  2. Menopause as a Medical and Social Issue

  3. Ovarian Senescence

    1. C. H. Matthews
      Pages 25-27
    2. Martin H. Birkhäuser
      Pages 29-38
  4. Connective Tissue and Bone

    1. Mark Brincat, Ray Galea
      Pages 45-53
    2. M. Meschia, F. Bruschi, F. Amicarelli, P. Pifarotti, M. Rossi, P. G. Crosignani
      Pages 55-59
    3. Marco Gambacciani, Massimo Ciaponi, Barbara Cappagli, Laura Piaggesi, Caterina Benussi, Stefania Picchetti et al.
      Pages 61-67
  5. Osteoporosis

  6. Cardiovascular Risk

    1. Gerd Assmann, Paul Cullen, Helmut Schulte
      Pages 91-98
    2. P. G. Crosignani, C. Boschetti, M. Cortellaro, M. Meschia
      Pages 99-103
    3. Peter Collins
      Pages 105-110
    4. G. M. C. Rosano, F. Leonardo, G. Grutter, S. L. Chierchia
      Pages 111-117

About this book


Despite its universality in human female aging, the menopause and its biology are not completely understood. New biologic mechanisms by which sex hormones may be detrimental or confer protection are continually being discovered.
We are now starting to understand that the role of the estrogen receptor is not identical in all tissues. Important nongenomic effects for sex hormones have also been described. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has produced effects on health risks: some are reduced, some are increased, and the rest remain uncertain. HRT is being used by an increasing number of women to alleviate climacteric symptoms in the perimenopausal period and to prevent osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease later. Positive effects on Alzheimer's disease and dementia on the one hand, and an increase in venous thrombosis on the other, are currently being reported by several groups. Both the preventive benefits and the risk of breast cancer seem to be linked to long-term and current use. HRT requires further testing through specific clinical trials, currently underway in the United States, before confident recommendations may be made about the full range of benefits and risks.


Endometrium biology cancer health hormones menopause receptor sex

Editors and affiliations

  • R. Paoletti
    • 1
  • P. G. Crosignani
    • 2
  • P. Kenemans
    • 3
  • G. Samsioe
    • 4
  • M. R. Soma
    • 5
  • A. S. Jackson
    • 6
  1. 1.Institute of Pharmacological SciencesUniversity of MilanMilanItaly
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyUniversity of MilanMilanItaly
  3. 3.Department of Obstetrics and GynaecologyUniversity Hospital Vrije UniversiteitAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyLund University HospitalLundSweden
  5. 5.Institute of Pharmacological SciencesUniversity of MilanMilanItaly
  6. 6.Giovanni Lorenzini Medical FoundationHoustonUSA

Bibliographic information

  • DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-5560-1
  • Copyright Information Kluwer Academic Publishers and Fondazione Giovanni Lorenzini 1997
  • Publisher Name Springer, Dordrecht
  • eBook Packages Springer Book Archive
  • Print ISBN 978-94-010-6343-2
  • Online ISBN 978-94-011-5560-1
  • Series Print ISSN 0928-9550
  • About this book
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