© 1962

Formal Methods

An Introduction to Symbolic Logic and to the Study of Effective Operations in Arithmetic and Logi

  • Authors

Part of the Synthese Library book series (SYLI, volume 4)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages I-XIV
  2. Evert W. Beth
    Pages 1-38
  3. Evert W. Beth
    Pages 39-47
  4. Evert W. Beth
    Pages 62-75
  5. Evert W. Beth
    Pages 101-111
  6. Evert W. Beth
    Pages 112-121
  7. Back Matter
    Pages 122-170

About this book


Many philosophers have considered logical reasoning as an inborn ability of mankind and as a distinctive feature in the human mind; but we all know that the distribution of this capacity, or at any rate its development, is very unequal. Few people are able to set up a cogent argument; others are at least able to follow a logical argument and even to detect logical fallacies. Nevertheless, even among educated persons there are many who do not even attain this relatively modest level of development. According to my personal observations, lack of logical ability may be due to various circumstances. In the first place, I mention lack of general intelligence, insufficient power of concentration, and absence of formal education. Secondly, however, I have noticed that many people are unable, or sometimes rather unwilling, to argue ex hypothesi; such persons cannot, or will not, start from premisses which they know or believe to be false or even from premisses whose truth is not, in their opinion, sufficient­ ly warranted. Or, if they agree to start from such premisses, they sooner or later stray away from the argument into attempts first to settle the truth or falsehood of the premisses. Presumably this attitude results either from lack of imagination or from undue moral rectitude. On the other hand, proficiency in logical reasoning is not in itself a guarantee for a clear theoretic insight into the principles and foundations of logic.


15th century individual logic notation opera reduction semantic sentential logic subject symbolic logic syntactic

Bibliographic information

  • Book Title Formal Methods
  • Book Subtitle An Introduction to Symbolic Logic and to the Study of Effective Operations in Arithmetic and Logi
  • Editors E.W. Beth
  • Series Title Synthese Library
  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 1962
  • Publisher Name Springer, Dordrecht
  • eBook Packages Springer Book Archive
  • Hardcover ISBN 978-90-277-0069-8
  • Softcover ISBN 978-94-010-3271-1
  • eBook ISBN 978-94-010-3269-8
  • Edition Number 1
  • Number of Pages XIV, 170
  • Number of Illustrations 0 b/w illustrations, 0 illustrations in colour
  • Topics Logic
  • Buy this book on publisher's site